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Table 1 Study characteristics

From: Diagnostic accuracy of sensory and motor tests for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome: a systematic review

Author/year/ study design Country n-hands n-individuals n-CTS Diagnostic tool(s) Reference standard
Borg & Lindblom [20] /1988/ Prospective cross-sectional Sweden 33 22 22 QST consisted of vibrometry, tactile thresholds, Von Frey hairs, 2PD, graphesthesia, warm and cold thresholds A combined battery of tests
Buch-Jaeger & Foucher [21] / 1994/ Prospective cross-sectional France 172 112 112 Vibratory sensibility, static 2PD, SWMFs NCS
Dale et al. [8] /2011 / Prospective cross-sectional USA NR 1108 NR SWMFs Modified Katz Hand Diagram; NCS; The Consensus Criteria CTS Case Definition
Franzblau et al. [22] /1993/ Prospective cross-sectional USA 260 130 22 Vibration, hand grip strength, palmar pinch grip NCS; NCS+ surveillance symptom definitions for CTS; Physical examination + surveillance symptom definitions for CTS
Katz et al. [23] /1990/ Retrospective cross sectional USA 165 110 44 2PD NCS
Kucukakkas & Yurdakul [7]/ 2019/ Prospective cross-sectional Turkey 463 463 226 Thenar atrophy, 2PD NCS
Kuhlman et al. [24] /1997/ Prospective cross-sectional USA 228 143 142 Hypoesthesia, APB weakness NCS
MacDermid et al. [25] /1994/ Prospective cross-sectional Canada 78 39 23 SWMFs Clinical profile of CTS + NCS
MacDermid et al. [26] /1997/ Prospective cross-sectional Canada 84 42 36 Vibration, pinch grip strength, SWMFs NCS + positive clinical examination
Makanji et al. [11] /2013/ Prospective cohort USA NR 88 65 Thenar atrophy, thumb abduction weakness NCS
Naranjo et al. [9] /2007/ Prospective cross-sectional Spain 105 68 80 Thenar atrophy NCS
Pagel et al. [27] /2002/ Prospective cross-sectional Portland NR 113 60 SWMFs NCS
Raudino [28] /2000/ Prospective cross-sectional Italy 140 hands 83 83 Hypoesthesia, thumb abduction Weakness NCS
Sartorio [10] /2017/ Prospective cross-sectional Italy NR 80 80 Functional dexterity test NCS
Szabo et al. [29] /1999/ Prospective cross-sectional USA CTS = 87
other diagnoses of UE = 90
100 87 SWMFs, grip strength NCS
Yildirim & Gunduz [6] /2015/ Retrospective cross-sectional Turkey 124 62 49 SWMFs NCS
  1. List of abbreviations: ROB risk of bias, 2PD two-point discrimination, SWMFs Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, APB Abductor Pollicis Brevis, NCS nerve conduction studies, QST quantitative sensory testing, NR not reported, CTS carpal tunnel syndrome, ROB risk of bias