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Table 1 Preoperative lower-limb alignment and joint orientation

From: Total knee arthroplasty in femoral bowing: does patient specific instrumentation have something to add? A randomized controlled trial

  Conventional (n = 29) PSI (n = 29)  
  Mean (SD) 95% CI Mean (SD) 95% CI p-value
Lateral femoral bowing (°) 9.2 (4.1) 7.7–10.6 9.6 (3.0) 8.5–10.7 0.327
HKA angle (varus °) 13.1 (5.2) 11.2–15 12.7 (6.1) 10.5–15 0.401
mLDFA(°) 90.9 (3.2) 89.7–92.1 90.6 (2.4) 89.7–91.4 0.328
aLDFA(°) 80.6 (2.3) 79.8–81.5 80.9 (2.5) 79.9–81.8 0.321
MPTA(°) 83.1 (3.6) 81.8 ~ 84.4 83 (4.5) 81.4 ~ 84.7 0.448
Joint translation 2.5 (3.2) 1.3–3.6 2.4 (3.2) 1.2–3.6 0.470
JLCA(°) 4.4 (3.4) 3.2–5.7 4.9 (3.1) 3.8–6.0 0.304
PCA (°) 6.2 (1.8) 5.6–6.9 6.2 (1.5) 5.6–6.7 0.427
  1. HKA hip-knee-ankle, mLDFA mechanical lateral distal femoral angle, aLDFA anatomic lateral distal femoral angle MPTA medial proximal tibial angle JLCA joint line convergence angle PCA posterior condylar angle