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Table 1 Demographic and preoperative clinical characteristics of the patients

From: Efficacy and safety of duloxetine for postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty in centrally sensitized patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Demographics Placebo group Duloxetine group Blank control group
Age (yr)    
Gender, n (%)    
BMI (kg/m2)    
Marital status    
Family status    
Education level, n (%)    
 Primary school    
 High school    
 Some college    
 Technical degree/associate’s degree    
 Bachelor’s degree    
 Advanced/professional degree (MA, PhD, etc.)    
Employment status    
ASA status    
Preoperative parameters    
 Duration of OA pain symptoms    
 Kellgren-Lawrence grade    
 OA pain-related medication consumption    
 Smoking consumption    
 Alcohol consumption    
 History of drug use    
 CSI score    
 VAS score    
 NRS score    
 BPI-pain severity score    
 KOOS score    
  1. ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, BMI Body Mass Index, BPI Brief Pain Inventory, CSI Central Sensitization Inventory, KOOS Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, MA Master of Arts, NRS numeric rating scale, OA Osteoarthritis, VAS visual analogue scale