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Table 1 Demographics and clinical characteristics of patients (n = 314) with displaced clavicle fractures undergoing surgeries (n = 316) compared between those without chest wall injury (no-CWI), concomitant CWI, and minor and complex CWI

From: Complications of clavicle fracture surgery in patients with concomitant chest wall injury: a retrospective study

Variable Group p-value
No-CWI (n = 226) CWI (n = 90) Minor-CWI (n = 36) Complex-CWI (n = 54)
Age, years 40 (25–55) 53 (45–60) 53 (46–59) 53 (42–62) < 0.0001
Sex, male 148 (65.5%) 56 (62.2%) 21 (58.3%) 35 (64.8%) 0.84
BMI, kg/m2 23 (20–26) 25 (23–27) 25 (22–27) 25 (23–27) 0.0001
Smoking
 Current 59 (26.1%) 31 (34.4%) 14 (38.9%) 17 (31.5%) 0.27
 Previously 12 (5.3%) 1 (1.1%) 1 (2.8%) 0 (0) 0.12
Diabetes 16 (7.1%) 10 (11.1%) 4 (11.1%) 6 (11.1%) 0.57
Clavicle fracture      0.94
 Left 116 (51.3%) 49 (54.4%) 20 (55.6%) 29 (53.7%)  
 Right 110 (48.7%) 41 (45.6%) 16 (44.4%) 25 (46.3%)  
Rib fracture number 0 (0) 4 (2–6) 2 (1–3) 6 (5–6) < 0.0001
AO type      0.088
 15.1 2 (0.9%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
 15.2 152 (67.3%) 73 (81.1%) 28 (77.8% 45 (83.3%)  
 15.3 72 (31.8%) 17 (18.9%) 8 (22.2%) 9 (16.7%)  
Associated injury 17 (7.5%) 13 (14.4%) 4 (11.1%) 9 (16.7%) 0.12
  1. Numerical data is presented as the median (Interquartile range); categorical data as the number n (%). CWI: chest wall injury; BMI: Body Mass Index; no: Number; AO: Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen classification. Complex CWI: flail chest, four or more rib fractures; Associated injury: abbreviated Injury Scale 3
  2. Table of pairwise comparison between groups is in Additional file 1