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Table 1 Circulating BNP and other clinical characteristics between T2DM patients with and without osteoporosis (x̄±s)

From: Association of circulating B-type natriuretic peptide with osteoporosis in a Chinese type 2 diabetic population

  Normal
(n = 73)
Osteopenia
(n = 120)
Osteoporosis
(n = 121)
P Value
Male/Female 39/34 50/70 16/105**## 0.000
Diabetic duration (years) 7.11 ± 5.91 8.60 ± 7.19 9.43 ± 7.46 0.134
Age (years) 59.32 ± 11.98 64.12 ± 8.76* 69.49 ± 7.89**## 0.000
Height (cm) 161.98 ± 8.35 158.19 ± 7.75** 152.71 ± 11.83**## 0.000
Weight (kg) 65.86 ± 10.73 61.95 ± 9.38* 56.96 ± 13.55**## 0.000
BMI (kg/m2) 25.02 ± 3.00 24.91 ± 3.99 23.83 ± 4.33 0.058
SBP (mmHg) 132.14 ± 21.95 134.84 ± 21.80 136.71 ± 23.89 0.396
DBP (mmHg) 70.44 ± 12.01 69.73 ± 12.23 67.74 ± 13.53 0.291
PP (mmHg) 61.70 ± 19.77 65.12 ± 18.54 68.97 ± 20.65* 0.041
TC (mmol/L) 4.89 ± 109 4.81 ± 1.29 4.79 ± 1.22 0.849
TG (mmol/L) 2.31 ± 1.48 2.20 ± 1.97 1.91 ± 1.08 0.182
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.13 ± 0.28 1.23 ± 0.40 1.25 ± 0.37 0.068
LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.89 ± 0.85 2.74 ± 1.01 2.82 ± 1.02 0.594
FBG (mmol/L) 10.40 ± 4.49 11.44 ± 6.20 10.25 ± 5.70 0.298
HbA1c (%) 9.86 ± 2.38 9.54 ± 2.62 9.12 ± 2.45 0.118
Calcium (mg/dL)a 9.67 ± 1.16 9.51 ± 1.09 9.21 ± 1.41**# 0.003
ALP (U/L) 93.56 ± 47.76 79.29 ± 39.98** 95.36 ± 46.67## 0.000
Creatinine (μmol/L) 77.23 ± 50.41 82.12 ± 72.08 79.75 ± 69.91 0.516
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 91.88 ± 31.76 85.24 ± 26.55 79.33 ± 26.66** 0.007
ACR (mg/g) 362.60 ± 151.53 132.57 ± 43.85 325.48 ± 79.67 0.143
Cystatin C (mg/L) 1.05 ± 0.48 1.12 ± 0.54 1.22 ± 0.68 0.181
WBC count (*109 /L) 6.90 ± 2.06 6.88 ± 2.65 7.42 ± 3.94 0.341
Neutrophil count (*109 /L) 4.68 ± 1.78 4.67 ± 2.42 5.52 ± 3.94 0.273
Lymphocyte count (*109/L) 1.67 ± 0.62 1.67 ± 0.76 1.42 ± 0.56**## 0.006
NLR 3.26 ± 0.28 3.35 ± 0.24 4.86 ± 0.49**## 0.003
Fibrinogen (g/L) 3.70 ± 1.15 3.52 ± 1.17 3.98 ± 1.47 0.094
Hb (g/L) 130.58 ± 23.53 127.31 ± 17.96 118.86 ± 19.39**## 0.000
TBIL (μmol/L) 11.48 ± 3.85 12.29 ± 5.54 11.33 ± 4.36 0.263
DBIL (μmol/L) 4.11 ± 1.53 4.35 ± 2.22 4.20 ± 1.63 0.660
IBIL (μmol/L) 7.37 ± 2.67 7.93 ± 3.89 7.12 ± 3.25 0.175
ABI 1.04 ± 0.15 1.03 ± 0.13 0.96 ± 0.20*# 0.010
VPT (V) 16.50 ± 8.81 19.02 ± 10.15 20.98 ± 10.95* 0.014
OSTA 1.23 ± 0.35 −0.49 ± 0.23** −2.60 ± 0.27**## 0.000
Bone metabolism    
LS BMD (g/cm2) 1.120 ± 0.148 0.990 ± 0.102** 0.811 ± 0.114**## 0.000
LS T score 0.40 ± 0.16 −0.75 ± 0.09** −2.43 ± 0.10**## 0.000
FN BMD (g/cm2) 0.926 ± 0.107 0.805 ± 0.086** 0.678 ± 0.094**## 0.000
FN T score −0.46 ± 0.11 −1.42 ± 0.07** −2.18 ± 0.07**## 0.000
TH BMD (g/cm2) 0.875 ± 0.100 0.759 ± 0.081** 0.623 ± 0.085**## 0.000
TH T score −0.85 ± 0.08 −1.64 ± 0.06** −2.72 ± 0.06**## 0.000
Fragility fractures 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 25 (20.66%)* *## 0.000
Macrovascular complications
 Hypertension (n, %) 41 (56.16%) 69 (57.50%) 73 (60.33%) 0.830
 CHD (n, %) 9 (12.33%) 20 (16.67%) 19 (15.70%) 0.710
 Stroke (n, %) 10 (13.70%) 28 (23.33%) 36 (29.75%) * 0.039
 PAD (n, %) 5 (6.85%) 13 (10.83%) 23 (19.01%) * 0.034
Microvascular complications
 DN (n, %) 27 (36.99%) 47 (39.17%) 63 (52.07%) 0.056
 DR (n, %) 10 (13.70%) 17 (14.17%) 13 (10.74%) 0.701
 DPN (n, %) 17 (23.29%) 38 (31.67%) 41 (33.88%) 0.285
Hypoglycemic drugs
 Metformin 43 (58.90%) 61 (50.83%) 66 (54.55%) 0.453
 Sulfonylurea 27 (36.99%) 49 (40.83%) 53 (43.80%) 0.682
 Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor 18 (24.66%) 42 (35.00%) 31 (25.62%) 0.165
 Insulin 30 (41.10%) 64 (53.33%) 51 (42.15%) 0.168
Antihypertensive drugs
 ACEI 7 (9.59%) 14 (11.67%) 10 (8.26%) 0.690
 ARB 23 (31.51%) 35 (29.17%) 38 (31.40%) 0.879
 Beta-blockers 5 (6.85%) 11 (9.17%) 9 (7.44%) 0.837
  α-blockers 4 (5.48%) 3 (2.50%) 5 (4.13%) 0.546
 Calcium channel blockers 21 (28.77%) 29 (24.17%) 35 (28.93%) 0.619
  1. Data are mean ± SD. SD standard deviation; BMI body mass index; SBP systolic blood pressure; DBP diastolic blood pressure; PP pulse pressure; TC total cholesterol; TG triglyceride; HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; FBG fasting blood glucose; HbA1c glycated hemoglobin A1c; Calcium (mg/dL)a = serum calcium concentration (mg/dL) + 0.8 × [4.0(g/dL)- serum albumin concentration (g/dl)]; ALP alkaline phosphatase; eGFR stimated glomerular filtration rate; ACR albumin- to-creatinine ratio; WBC white blood cell; NLR neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio; Hb hemoglobin; TBIL total bilirubin, DBIL direct bilirubin, IBIL indirect bilirubin, ABI Ankle-brachial index; VPT vibration perception threshold; OSTA osteoporosis self-assessment tool for Asians; LS lumbar spine; FN femoral neck; TP total hip; CHD coronary heart disease; PAD peripheral arterial disease; DN diabetic nephropathy; DR diabetic retinopathy; DPN diabetic peripheral neuropathy; ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB angiotensin receptor antagonists; T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus. Vs. Normal group, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01; vs. Osteopenia group, #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01