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Table 3 Multivariable mixed effects model comparing WG to SG for change in all outcomes from baseline to 12 months

From: A randomized controlled trial investigating effects of an individualized pedometer driven walking program on chronic low back pain

  COVARIATES CHANGE SCORE
Baseline Estimate (−/+  95%CI) p=   3 month (−/+ 95%CI) p= 6 month (−/+ 95%CI) p= 12 month (−/+ 95%CI) p=
ODI Intercept WG 9.9 (2.8 to 17.0)   WG −5.6 (−7.4 to −3.8) < 0.0001 − 7.2 (−9.2 to − 5.2) < 0.0001 −7.8 (− 8.9 to − 6.7) < 0.0001
Intercept SG 11.4 (4.1 to 18.7) 0.36 SG −2.8 (− 5.5 to − 0.1) 0.04 − 3.9 (− 6.8 to − 1.0) 0.01 −4.7 (− 6.3 to − 3.1) 0.003
    WG-SG −2.8 (− 6.1 to 0.5) 0.09 −3.3 (− 6.8 to 0.2) 0.06 − 3.1 (− 5.0 to − 1.2) 0.10
Gender(M) −1.7 (− 4.6 to 1.2) 0.23        
Age 0.22 (0.14 to 0.30) < 0.0001        
BMI 0.03 (−0.21 to 0.27) 0.8        
IPAQ Intercept WG 3676.7 (1718.1 to 5635.3)   WG 377.7 (− 396.9 to 1152.3) 0.34 −322.1 (− 1147.5 to 503.3) 0.44 − 136.9 (− 1003.2 to 729.4) 0.76
Intercept SG 4311.9 (2305.3 to 6318.5) 0.23 SG −843.7 (− 1989.7 to 302.3) 0.15 − 1386.0 (− 2565.7 to − 206.3) 0.22 − 202.2 (− 1516.0 to 1111.6) 0.76
    WG-SG − 1222.3 (− 2605.9 to 161.3) 0.08 − 1063.9 (− 2503.1 to 375.3) 0.15 −65.3 (− 1640.7 to 1510.1) 0.94
Gender(M) 1334.1 (552.1 to 2116.1) 0.0009        
Age −14.6 (−38.1 to 8.9) 0.22        
BMI −25.5 (−89.0 to 38.0) 0.43        
FABQ Intercept WG 16.6 (9.0 to 24.2)   WG −5.4 (−7.8 to −3.0) < 0.0001 − 5.7 (−8.1 to − 3.3) < 0.0001 −7.5 (−10.0 to − 5.0) < 0.0001
Intercept SG 17.2 (9.4 to 25.0) 0.75 SG −1.6 (−4.9 to 1.7) 0.34 − 4.5 (− 8.0 to − 1.0) 0.01 − 5.4 (−9.1 to − 1.7) 0.005
    WG-SG 3.8 (−0.3 to 7.9) 0.07 1.2 (− 3.1 to 5.5) 0.59 2.1 (−2.6 to 6.8) 0.38
Gender(M) 3.1 (0.0 to 6.2) 0.05        
Age 0.06 (−0.04 to 0.16) 0.23        
BMI 0.15 (−0.09 to 0.39) 0.24        
FABQ (PA) Intercept WG 8.6 (5.1 to 12.1)   WG −2.8 (−4.0 to −1.6) < 0.0001 −2.8 (− 4.2 to − 1.4) < 0.0001 − 2.3 (−3.7 to − 0.9) < 0.0001
Intercept SG 10.3 (6.8 to 13.8) 0.06 SG −0.5 (− 2.3 to 1.3) 0.06 −3.1 (−5.1 to − 1.1) 0.001 −2.2 (− 4.2 to − 0.2) 0.02
    WG-SG −2.3 (− 4.5 to − 0.1) 0.03 −0.3 (− 2.1 to 1.5) 0.80 0.1 (− 2.3 to 2.5) 0.30
Gender(M) 1.0 (−0.4 to 2.4) 0.15        
Age 0.02 (−0.01 to 0.05) 0.30        
BMI 0.02 (−0.01 to 0.05) 0.72        
FABQ(W) Intercept WG 8.1 (2.0 to 14.2)   WG −2.6 (−4.2 to −1.0) 0.002 −3.0 (− 4.8 to − 1.2) 0.001 −4.0 (−6.0 to − 2.0) < 0.0001
Intercept SG 7.0 (0.9 to 13.1) 0.45 SG −0.9 (−3.3 to 1.5) 0.48 −1.4 (−3.9 to 1.1) 0.29 −3.0 (−5.7 to − 0.3) 0.03
    WG-SG 1.8 (−1.1 to 4.7) 0.23 1.6 (−1.5 to 4.7) 0.31 1.0 (−2.3 to 4.3) 0.55
Gender(M) 2.2 (−0.3 to 4.7) 0.08        
Age 0.03 (−0.05 to 0.11) 0.42        
BMI 0.13 (−0.07 to 0.33) 0.19        
BBQ Intercept WG 32.2 (27.7 to 36.7)   WG 1.0 (−0.6 to 2.6) 0.19 1.3 (−0.3 to 2.9) 0.11 1.2 (−0.5 to 2.9) 0.16
Intercept SG 30.7 (26.0 to 35.4) 0.20 SG 0.8 (−1.4 to 3.0) 0.49 0.4 (−2.0 to 2.8) 0.77 1.6 (−1.1 to 4.3) 0.23
    WG-SG −0.2 (−2.9 to 2.5) 0.87 −1.0 (−3.9 to 1.9) 0.50 0.3 (−1.4 to 2.0) 0.16
Gender(M) −2.7 (−4.5 to −0.9) 0.005        
Age 0.02 (−0.04 to 0.08) 0.40        
BMI −0.07 (− 0.23 to 0.09) 0.39        
Self-Efficacy Intercept WG 16.1 (13.2 to 19.0)   WG −1.1 (−1.9 to −0.3) 0.02 −1.3 (−2.3 to − 0.3) 0.008 − 0.4 (− 1.4 to 0.6) 0.40
Intercept SG 14.7 (11.8 to 17.6) 0.04 SG 0.3 (−0.9 to 1.5) 0.69 −1.3 (−2.7 to 0.1) 0.07 −0.2 (− 1.6 to 1.2) 0.77
    WG-SG 1.3 (−0.3 to 2.9) 0.08 −0.02 (−1.8 to 1.4) 0.99 −0.4 (−2.2 to 1.4) 0.40
Gender(M) 0.5 (−0.7 to 1.7) 0.36        
Age −0.0002 (− 0.0008 to 0.0004) 0.99        
BMI −0.01 (− 0.17 to 0.15) 0.81        
EQ-5D-5L Intercept WG 0.832 (0.769 to 0.895)   WG 0.034 (0.016 to 0.052) 0.003 0.043 (0.023 to 0.063) < 0.0001 0.038 (0.018 to 0.058) 0.0003
Intercept SG 0.801 (0.772 to 0.830) 0.04 SG 0.020 (−0.007 to 0.047) 0.14 0.041 (0.012 to 0.070) 0.006 0.050 (0.021 to 0.079) 0.001
    WG-SG 0.013 (−0.018 to 0.044) 0.42 0.002 (−0.033 to 0.037) 0.91 0.012 (−0.023 to 0.047) 0.52
Gender(M) −0.006 (− 0.009 to − 0.004) 0.67        
Age −0.0007 (− 0.0014 to 0.0000) 0.09        
BMI −0.00002 (− 0.00004 to 0.0000) 0.98