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Table 6 Results of the bivariate analysis

From: Patterns of pain location in music students: a cluster analysis

  Total (n = 340) Patterns of pain location Statistical test result
WP WSP RSP LSP NBP
(n = 77) (n = 57) (n = 63) (n = 79) (n = 64)
Gender
 Woman 66% 55% 79% 67% 71% 62% χ2(df, 8) = 18.05*
 Man 33% 44% 18% 33% 29% 38%
 Other 1% 1% 3% 0% 0% 0%
Perceived health [SRH]
 Excellent 5% 7% 5% 5% 5% 2% χ2(df, 16) = 28.30*
 Very good 22% 27% 11% 33% 14% 23%
 Good 51% 45% 65% 40% 52% 56%
 Fair 20% 17% 22% 22% 24% 19%
 Poor 2% 4% 4% 0% 5% 0%
Disability [PAS-QuickDASH score, 0–100]
 Median 31.3 37.5 37.5 34.4 25.0 25.0 χ2(df, 4) = 22.20***
Self-efficacy [PSEQ-2 score, 12–0]
 Median 10.0 10.0 9.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 χ2(df, 4) = 17.90**
Psychological distress [K10 score, 0–50]
 Median 21.0 21.0 25.0 20.0 22.0 21.0 χ2(df, 4) = 22.60***
Perfectionism [HFMPS-SF – SP sub-scale score, 5–35]
 Median 18.0 17.0 20.0 16.5 20.0 19.0 χ2(df, 4) = 13.57**
Instrument [classification]
 Elevated both frontal 8% 4% 18% 6% 9% 6% χ2(df, 20) = 49.53***
 Elevated both left 19% 16% 26% 16% 29% 9%
 Elevated left 8% 12% 16% 5% 3% 6%
 Elevated right 15% 19% 10% 14% 7% 22%
 Neutral 39% 45% 25% 49% 37% 36%  
 Voice 11% 4% 5% 10% 15% 21%
Perceived exertion after 45 min of practice without breaks [0–10]
 Median 5.0 5.0 6.0 4.0 4.0 5.0 χ2(df, 4) = 13.99**
Perceived cause attributed to the musical activity
 Yes 82% 87% 95% 87% 79% 66% χ2(df, 8) = 23.66**
 No 17% 13% 5% 11% 20% 31%
 Don’t know 1% 0% 0% 2% 1% 3%
  1. *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05
  2. For categorical variables, the total sample and cluster specific distributions of the variables considered (column percentages) have been reported, as well as the chi-square statistic and its statistical significance level. For continuous variables, the median and the range for each variable has been reported, as well as the chi-square statistic of the Kruskal-Wallis test and its statistical significance level
  3. WP Wrist pain, WSP Widespread pain RSP, right shoulder pain, LSP Both shoulders pain - left concentrated, NBP Neck and back, SRH Self-rated health, PAS-QuickDASH Performing Arts Section of the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Outcome Measure, PSEQ-2 2-item short form of the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, K10 Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, HFMPS-SF Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale - short form, SP Socially prescribed
  4. Elevated both frontal: Music students playing musical instruments with both arms elevated in a frontal position (i.e. harp, trombone, and trumpet); Elevated both left: Music students playing musical instruments with both arms elevated in the left quadrant position (i.e. viola, violin); Elevated left: Music students playing musical instruments with only the left arm elevated (i.e. cello, double bass); Elevated right: Music students playing musical instruments with only the right arm elevated (i.e. flute, guitar); Neutral: Music students playing musical instruments in a neutral position, without the elevation of arms (i.e. accordion, bassoon, clarinet, euphonium/tuba; French horn, harpsicord, oboe, organ, percussion, piano, recorder, saxophone)