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Table 5 Cluster analysis according to the location of MSK pain among participants

From: Patterns of pain location in music students: a cluster analysis

Patterns of pain locations
Location Total (n = 340) WP (n = 77) WSP (n = 57) RSP (n = 63) LSP (n = 79) NBP (n = 64)
Neck 59% 39% ** ↓ 98% *** ↑ 51% 61% 55%
Right shoulder 43% 3% *** ↓ 63% ** ↑ 100% *** ↑ 58% * ↑ 0% *** ↓
Left shoulder 40% 10% *** ↓ 84% *** ↑ 3% *** ↓ 100% *** ↑ 0% *** ↓
Right elbow 10% 17% 23% ** ↑ 11% 1% ** ↓ 0% ** ↓
Left elbow 12% 14% 49% *** ↑ 0% ** ↓ 3% * ↓ 2% * ↓
Right wrist/hand 30% 70% *** ↑ 49% ** ↑ 30% 0% *** ↓ 0% *** ↓
Left wrist/hand 27% 60% *** ↑ 77% *** ↑ 2% *** ↓ 0% *** ↓ 0% *** ↓
Upper back 38% 22% ** ↓ 56% * ↑ 30% 37% 48%
Lower back 37% 29% 56% ** ↑ 19% ** ↓ 38% 37%
  1. *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05
  2. WP (n = 77): wrist pain (representing 22.6% of the total sample); WSP (n = 57): widespread pain (16.9%); RSP (n = 63): right shoulder pain (18.5%); LSP (n = 79): both shoulders pain – left concentrated (23.2%); NBP (n = 64): neck and back pain (18.8%). To facilitate the description and interpretation, cluster percentages significantly lower than the total sample percentages (according to the two-sided Z-test for proportions and considering a p-value of 5% as threshold for statistical significance) are followed by a downward-facing arrow (↓), while percentages significantly higher are followed by an upward-facing arrow (↑).