Skip to main content

Table 3 Descriptive statistics of variables associated with the playing of musical instruments

From: Patterns of pain location in music students: a cluster analysis

Variable n %
Instrument [classification] (n = 340)
 Elevated both frontal 28 8.2%
 Elevated both left 65 19.1%
 Elevated left 28 8.2%
 Elevated right 50 14.7%
 Neutral 132 38.8%
 Voice 37 11.0%
Years of practice (n = 340)
 Median 13  
 Range 6–34  
Hours of practice per day (n = 340)
 Median 3  
 Range 3–8  
Perceived exertion after 45 min of practice without breaks (n = 340)
 Median 5  
 Range 0–10  
Preparatory exercises (n = 340)
 Yes 149 43.8%
 No 191 56.2%
Breaks during practice (n = 340)
 Yes 210 61.8%
 No 130 38.2%
  1. Elevated both frontal: Music students playing musical instruments with both arms elevated in a frontal position (i.e. harp, trombone, and trumpet); Elevated both left: Music students playing musical instruments with both arms elevated in the left quadrant position (i.e. viola, violin); Elevated left: Music students playing musical instruments with only the left arm elevated (i.e. cello, double bass); Elevated right: Music students playing musical instruments with only the right arm elevated (i.e. flute, guitar); Neutral: Music students playing musical instruments in a neutral position, without the elevation of arms (i.e. accordion, bassoon, clarinet, euphonium/tuba; French horn, harpsicord, oboe, organ, percussion, piano, recorder, saxophone)