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Table 1 Included trials

From: Identification of subgroup effect with an individual participant data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of three different types of therapist-delivered care in low back pain

Given name of trial Country Number of participants Grouping of treatments Interventions tested
Witt [16] Germany 3093 Passive physical Acupuncture
Control Usual/GP care control
UK BEAM [17] United Kingdom 1334 Active physical Exercise
Passive physical Manipulation
Combination Combination (exercise + manipulation)
Control Usual/GP care control
Haake [18] Germany 1163 Passive physical Acupuncture
Control Usual/GP care control
Sham control Sham acupuncture
BeST [19] United Kingdom 701 Psychological Psychological plus exercise/activities
Control Usual/GP care control
Keele [20] United Kingdom 402 Passive physical Manipulation
Psychological Psychological
Brinkhaus [21] Germany 298 Passive physical Acupuncture
Control Usual/GP care control
Sham control Sham acupuncture
Dufour [22] Denmark 286 Passive physical Individual physiotherapy
Active physical Exercise
Pengel [23] Australia 260 Active physical Exercise
Psychological Advice/education
Combination Combination (exercise + education)
Sham control Sham electrotherapy + education
YACBAC [24] United Kingdom 241 Passive physical Acupuncture
Control Usual/GP care control
Hancock [25] Australia 240 Passive physical Manipulation
Sham control Sham electrotherapy
Von Korff BIA [26] United States of America 240 Psychological Psychological
Control Usual/GP care control
HullExPro [27] United Kingdom 237 Passive physical Individual physiotherapy
Active physical Exercise
Von Korff SC2 [28] United States of America 226 Psychological Psychological
Control Usual/GP care control
Smeets [29] The Netherlands 223 Active physical Exercise
Active physical Graded activity
Combination Combination (education + graded activity)
Control Usual/GP care control
Cecchi [30] Italy 210 Passive physical Individual physiotherapy
Passive physical Manipulation
Psychological Advice/education
York BP [31] United Kingdom 187 Active physical Exercise
Control Usual/GP care control
Macedo [32] Australia 172 Psychological Advice/education
Active physical Graded activity
Carlsson [33] Sweden 50 Passive physical Acupuncture
Sham control Sham TENS
Kennedy [34] United Kingdom 48 Passive physical Acupuncture
Sham control Sham TENS