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Table 4 Change in mean levels of pain catastrophizing, anxiety, depression, and function from pre- to post-treatment for patients with adverse hip conditions

From: Functional improvement in hip pathology is related to improvement in anxiety, depression, and pain catastrophizing: an intricate link between physical and mental well-being

  N Pretreatment Posttreatment ΔM  
M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) p-value
Outcome
 PCS Total 201 15.94 (12.73) 8.26 (10.57) −7.67 (11.70) < 0.0001
 VAS Pain 201 5.21 (2.35) 2.51 (2.50) −2.70 (3.11) < 0.0001
 HADS Depression 201 5.42 (3.72) 3.83 (3.61) −1.59 (3.96) < 0.0001
 HADS Anxiety 201 5.43 (3.02) 3.90 (4.07) −1.53 (4.11) < 0.0001
 HOS Function 201 1.91 (0.68) 2.70 (0.81) 0.79 (1.03) < 0.0001
 HOOS ADL 201 46.45 (17.40) 65.23 (15.76) 18.77 (21.39) < 0.0001
 HOOS Symptoms 201 41.04 (19.88) 64.04 (17.79) 23.00 (26.12) < 0.0001
 HOOS Stiffness 201 38.95 (20.45) 58.65 (19.43) 19.70 (26.92) < 0.0001
 HOOS Sport 201 30.43 (22.94) 50.26 (25.20) 19.83 (32.51) < 0.0001
 HOOS QoL 201 20.98 (17.47) 49.18 (24.04) 28.20 (28.52) < 0.0001
  1. Note. M = Sample Mean; SD=Standard Deviation; ΔM = Mean change in outcome. Change was operationally defined as post minus pre level. p-value (two-tailed) = Dependent samples t-test was used to test for differences in sample means from pre- to post-treatment. FDR values were all 0.0001
  2. PCS Pain Catastrophizing Scale, VAS Visual Analogue Pain Scale, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HOS Hip Outcome Survey, HOOS Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score