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Table 2 Outcomes of physical examination and stress sonography

From: Clinical evaluation of manual stress testing, stress ultrasound and 3D stress MRI in chronic mechanical ankle instability

Testing Modality CON MAI Group difference [95% CI upper; lower] Sign.
Physical examination TTT 1.8 ± .7 4.8 ± .5 3.0 [2.7; 3.4] P < 0.001
ADT 1.3 ± .5 4.8 ± .5 3.5 [3.2; 3.8] P < 0.001
Stress Sonography (mm) TTT At rest 24.7 ± 3.0 26.3 ± 3.8 1.6 [−.3; 3.6] p = 0.1, F(1,49) = 2794 η2 = .06
150 N load 27.1 ± 3.7 31.5 ± 2.2 4.4 [2.7; 6.2] p < 0.001, F(1,49) = 25,940 η2 = .36
load-rest 2.4 ± 2.1 5.2 ± 2.9 2.8 [1.4; 4.2] p < 0.001, F(1,49) = 15,496 η2 = .25
ADT At rest 27.8 ± 3.6 27.7 ± 2.7 0.1 [−1.7; 1.9] p = 0.1, F(1,49) = 0,01 η2 = .00
150 N load 29.5 ± 3.2 31.9 ± 4.0 2.3 [0.3; 4.4] p = 0.03, F(1,49) = 5074 η2 = .1
load-rest 2.0 ± 1.5 4.1 ± 2.4 2.06 [0.92; 3.2] p < 0.001, F(1,49) = 13,563 η2 = .22
  1. CON control group, MAI mechanical instability group, TTT Talar tilt test, ADT anterior drawer test