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Table 3 Intra-rater reliability measured by the smartphone applications and the 3DMA for each position

From: Validity and reliability of smartphone applications for measurement of hip rotation, compared with three‐dimensional motion analysis

Positions Rater A Rater B
ICC (lower, upper) SEM (°) %SEM LOA ICC (lower, upper) SEM (°) %SEM LOA
Sitting IRa 0.97 (0.94, 0.99) 1.33 4.5 (-2.4, 4.6) 0.87 (0.71, 0.94) 0.78 3.2 (-5.6, 3.6)
Sitting ERa 0.89 (0.77, 0.95) 1.85 5.1 (-4.9, 5.2) 0.93 (0.84, 0.97) 1.19 3.9 (-4.1, 2.6)
Prone IRa 0.91 (0.81, 0.96) 3.22 9.3 (-11.2, 6.2) 0.87 (0.72, 0.94) 3.04 7.6 (-11.0, 5.8)
Prone ERa 0.90 (0.78, 0.95) 2.8 6.4 (-8.1, 7.7) 0.88 (0.74, 0.95) 2.59 5.6 (-7.8, 6.7)
Supine IRb 0.93 (0.84, 0.97) 2.48 7.8 (-7.4, 6.8) 0.93 (0.84, 0.97) 2.18 6.4 (-8.8, 3.4)
Supine ERb 0.88 (0.74, 0.95) 2.77 5.3 (-6.5, 9.1) 0.85 (0.69, 0.93) 3.68 7.0 (-11.9, 8.4)
  1. IR internal rotation; ER external rotation; ICC intraclass correlation coefficient; SEM standard error of measurement; LOA limit of agreement
  2. a Measured by The Bubble Level and Clinometer
  3. b Measured by The Accurate Compass