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Table 1 Mean hip rotation angles for each position measured by the smartphone applications and the three-dimensional motion analysis

From: Validity and reliability of smartphone applications for measurement of hip rotation, compared with three‐dimensional motion analysis

Positions Smartphone
Mean ± SD
(degrees)
3DMA
Mean ± SD
(degrees)
Sitting IRa 29.4 ± 7.5 19.7 ± 6.9
Sitting ERa 36.4 ± 5.3 29.4 ± 4.7
Prone IRa 35.3 ± 10.2 29.9 ± 8.2
Prone ERa 43.4 ± 8.9 35.0 ± 7.2
Supine IRb 31.4 ± 9.0 26.5 ± 7.9
Supine ERb 52.3 ± 7.7 40.6 ± 7.4
  1. 3DMA three-dimension motion analysis; IR internal rotation; ER external rotation
  2. a Measured by The Bubble Level and Clinometer
  3. b Measured by The Accurate Compass