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Table 2 Postoperative early-phase outcomes

From: The comparative efficacies of intravenous administration and intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction for reducing postoperative hemarthrosis: a prospective randomized study

  IV group IA group Placebo group F/χ2 value p value
Day 1
 Drain output volume (mL) 78.5 ± 38.4c 63.3 ± 31.8c 120.1 ± 57.4a, b 21.522 < 0.001
Week 1
 VAS score 2.7 ± 1.0c 2.4 ± 1.1c 3.5 ± 0.9a, b 12.793 < 0.001
 Patellar circumference (cm) 18.1 ± 5.0c 19.4 ± 6.2c 24.6 ± 7.0a, b 12.549 < 0.001
 Hemarthrosis grade, 0/1/2/3/4, n. 9/16/8/5/2c 8/16/11/4/1 c 0/5/11/15/9a, b 35.221 < 0.001*
Week 2
 VAS score 2.3 ± 1.1c 2.2 ± 1.1c 3.1 ± 1.1a, b 8.343 < 0.001
 Patellar circumference (cm) 11.2 ± 4.2c 10.0 ± 3.4c 16.0 ± 5.4a, b 20.446 < 0.001
 Hemarthrosis grade, 0/1/2/3/4, n. 13/19/6/2/0c 13/18/8/1/0c 4/16/16/4/0a, b 13.186 0.031
Week 4
 VAS score 1.7 ± 1.2 1.7 ± 1.2 1.9 ± 1.4 0.265 0.768
 Patellar circumference (cm) 5.7 ± 3.1 5.3 ± 3.2 5.8 ± 3.9 0.258 0.773
 Hemarthrosis grade, 0/1/2/3/4, n. 16/17/5/2/0 18/17/2/3/0 11/18/8/3/0 5.742 0.455
 Lysholm score 80.9 ± 11.8 82.1 ± 11.1 78.6 ± 10.6 1.026 0.362
  1. *Fisher-Freeman-Halton exact test;
  2. aSignificant difference compared to the IV group (p < 0.05)
  3. bSignificant difference compared to the IA group (p < 0.05)
  4. cSignificant difference compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05)