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Table 2 The socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of people with LBP at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Bahirdar Felege Hiwot Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, and Black Lion Hospital, Ethiopia

From: Cross-cultural translation, adaptation, and validation of the Amharic version pain self-efficacy questionnaire in people with low back pain in Ethiopia

Characteristics b Acute (n = 52) Chronic (n = 188) Total (n = 240)
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Mean (SD) age in years 33.4 (9.92) 43 (13.69) 40.93 (13.5)
Sex Male 25 (48.1%) 73 (38.8%) 98 (40.8%)
Female 27 (51.9%) 115 (61.2%) 142 (59.2%)
Marital status Single 19 (36.5%) 46 (24.5%) 65 (27.1%)
Married 29 (55.8%) 113 (60.1%) 142 (59.2%)
Cohabited 0 (0%) 10 (5.3%) 10 (4.2%)
Divorced 2 (3.8%) 14 (7.4%) 16 (6.7%)
Widowed 2 (3.8%) 5 (2.7%) 7 (2.9%)
Educational status/level Uneducated 1 (1.9%) 17 (9.0%) 18 (7.5%)
Primary School 10 (19.2%) 35 (18.6%) 45 (18.8%)
Secondary School 18 (34.6%) 65 (34.6%) 83 (34.6%)
Tertiary School (College or University) 23 (44.2%) 71 (37.8%) 94 (39.2%)
Residence Rural 7 (13.5%) 19 (10.1%) 26 (10.8%)
Urban 45 (86.5%) 169 (89.9%) 214 (89.2%)
Religion Orthodox Christian 36 (69.2%) 158 (84.0% 194 (80.8%)
Muslim 9 (17.3%) 18 (9.6%) 27 (11.3%)
Protestant 6 (11.5%) 10 (5.3%) 16 (6.7%)
Atheist 0 (%) 1 (0.5%) 1 (0.40%)
Others 1 (1.9%) 1 (0.5) 2 (0.80%)
Employment / work status Employed (government or private) 29 (55.8%) 102 (54.3%) 131 (54.6%)
Farmer 3 (5.8%) 9 (4.8%) 12 (5%)
Housewife 8 (15.4%) 36 (19.1%) 44 (18.3%)
Student 7 (13.5%) 8 (4.3%) 15 (6.3%)
Retired 5 (9.6%) 13 (6.9%) 18 (7.5%)
Others 0 (0%) 20 (10.6%) 20 (8.3%)
Diagnosis provided on patient’s medical chart No clear diagnosis provided 28 (53.8%) 91 (48.4%) 119 (49.6%)
LBP secondary to disc prolapse 15 (28.8%) 54 (28.7%) 69 (28.8%)
LBP secondary to degenerative changes 6 (11.5%) 13 (6.9) 33 (13.8%)
Other causes 3 (5.8%) 30 (16%) 19 (7.9%)
Pain management documented on medical charts A combination of physiotherapy and pain killers 15 (28.8%) 60 (31.9%) 75 (31.3%)
Pain killers only 13 (25%) 39 (20.7%) 52 (21.7%)
Physiotherapy only 9 (17.3%) 50 (26.6) 59 (24.6%)
None 15 (28.8%) 39 (20.7%) 54 (22.5%)
Mean (SD) duration of pain in months 1.63 (0.67) 52.7 (53.6) 41.7 (51.8)
Mean Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (0–60) (SD) 40.5 (13.5) 44.8 (11.5) 43.8 (12)
SF-36 (0–100) a
 Physical functioning (PF)c 57.5 (35) 55 (35) 55 (35)
 Role Functioning Physical (RP)c 25 (25) 25 (50) 25 (50)
 Role Functioning Emotional (RE)c 0 (33) 0 (33) 0 (100)
 Energy (VT) c 65 (23.8) 60 (20) 60 (20)
 Emotional Well-Being (EW) c 68 (23) 64 (24) 68 (84)
 Social Functioning (SF) c 75 (34.4) 75 (25) 75 (25)
 Bodily Pain (BP) c 32.5 (30.4) 45 (35) 37.5 (35)
 General health perception (GH) c 60 (23.8) 50 (25) 55(25)
  1. aone participant (out of the total 240) did not complete the SF-36 questionnaire
  2. b each column presents frequencies and percentages except where indicated
  3. cMedian and Interquartile range