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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the fracture cohort and non-fracture cohorts

From: Mortality in older adults following a fragility fracture: real-world retrospective matched-cohort study in Ontario

Clinical Characteristics Fracture cohort
n (%)
Non-fracture cohort
n (%)
Total number of patients 101,773 101,773
Sex
 Female 74,557 (73.3%) 74,557 (73.3%)
 Male 27,216 (26.7%) 27,216 (26.7%)
Age
 Mean ± SDa 80.25 ± 8.37* 80.33 ± 8.75*
 Median (IQR)a 81 (73–87) 81 (73–87)
 66–70 years 16,672 (16.4%) 16,672 (16.4%)
 71–75 years 15,996 (15.7%) 15,996 (15.7%)
 76–80 years 17,952 (17.6%) 17,952 (17.6%)
 81–85 years 20,584 (20.2%) 20,584 (20.2%)
 ≥86 years 30,569 (30.0%) 30,569 (30.0%)
Urban Residence 89,696 (88.1%) 89,696 (88.1%)
Respiratory conditionsb
 Asthma 13,113 (12.9%) 13,113 (12.9%)
 COPD 25,991 (25.5%) 25,991 (25.5%)
Inflammatory conditionsb
 Rheumatoid arthritis 2208 (2.2%) 2208 (2.2%)
 Psoriasis 4985 (4.9%) 4985 (4.9%)
 Spondyloarthritis 2432 (2.4%) 2432 (2.4%)
Cancerb 5166 (5.1%) 5166 (5.1%)
Chronic kidney diseaseb 8909 (8.8%) 8909 (8.8%)
Diabetesb 29,074 (28.6%) 29,074 (28.6%)
Vascular eventsb
 Myocardial infarction 4549 (4.5%) 4549 (4.5%)
 Stroke or cerebrovascular events 28,015 (27.5%) 28,015 (27.5%)
Osteoarthritisb 77,526 (76.2%) 77,526 (76.2%)
Dementiab 18,359 (18.0%) 18,359 (18.0%)
Osteoporosis treatment type within 1 year priora,c
 Any treatment 28,974 (28.5%)** 21,179 (20.8%)**
 Denosumab 1383 (1.4%)** 1088 (1.1%)**
 Bisphosphonate 25,626 (25.2%)** 17,720 (17.4%)**
 Raloxifene 599 (0.6%)** 465 (0.5%)**
 HRT 3259 (3.2%) 3312 (3.3%)
Index fracture by sitea,d
 Hip 26,963 (26.5%)
 Wrist 16,467 (16.2%)
 Humerus 11,756 (11.6%)
 Ribs 10,247 (10.1%)
 Tibia/fibula/knee 9859 (9.7%)
 Pelvis 7209 (7.1%)
 Vertebral 6595 (6.5%)
 Radius/ulna 4377 (4.3%)
 Multisite 3299 (3.2%)
 Femur 2618 (2.6%)
 Clavicle/sternum 2383 (2.3%)  
 Any site 101,773 (100%)  
Second fracture by sitea,d
 Hip 4956 (4.9%)
 Wrist 2002 (2.0%)
 Humerus 1814 (1.8%)
 Pelvis 1722 (1.7%)
 Ribs 1647 (1.6%)
 Vertebral 1590 (1.6%)
 Multisite 1326 (1.3%)
 Tibia/fibula/knee 1164 (1.1%)
 Radius/ulna 650 (0.6%)
 Femur 620 (0.6%)
 Clavicle/sternum 467 (0.5%)  
 Any site 17,958 (17.6%)  
  1. Values reported as n (%) unless otherwise indicated; percent of total respective cohort
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.001 statistical significance between fracture cohort and non-fracture cohort
  3. aVariable not used for matching
  4. bTime frame for cancer was 5 years within index data and for all other comorbidities any time prior to index date
  5. cWithin 1 year of index date. Bisphosphonates include alendronate, cyclical etidronate, risedronate, or zoledronic acid. Denosumab is not publicly covered in men and teriparatide in men or women in Ontario
  6. dIndex fragility fracture cases from January 1, 2011 to March 31, 2015. Second fragility fracture cases from the date of index event to March 31, 2017. Reported from highest to lowest number