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Table 1 Characteristics of patients undergoing accurate double percutaneous lumbar foraminoplasty (DPLF) and percutaneous endoscopic lumbar decompression (PELD)

From: Short-term effectiveness of precise safety decompression via double percutaneous lumbar foraminoplasty and percutaneous endoscopic lumbar decompression for lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis: a prospective cohort study

Patient data
Age at presentation, yrs 66.1 ± 7.5a(range, 42–91 years)
Male gender 40 (57.9%)
Occupation
 Sedentary 18 (26.1%)
 Light work 30 (43.4%)
 Heavy manual work 21 (30.5%)
 Duration of symptoms, mo 20.9 ± 5.6a (range, 4–90 months)
Level of involvement
 L3/4 0 (0%)
 L4/5 57 (82.6%)
 L5/S1 12 (17.4%)
Side of LLSC stenosis
 left 39 (56.5%)
 right 30 (43.5%)
Patients with comorbidities
 Diabetes mellitus 27 (39.1%)
 Smoking 24 (34.8%)
 Alcohol consumption 12 (17.4%)
 Osteoporosis 22 (31.8%)
 Hypertension 27 (39.1%)
 Use of antidepressants 1 (1.4%)
Physical treatment and medications
 Steroid intake 19 (27.5%)
 Nerve blocks/epidural blocks 11 (15.9%)
  1. aData represented as mean (±standard deviation)