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Table 2 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the Dutch and US samples

From: Graded response model fit, measurement invariance and (comparative) precision of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS® Upper Extremity V2.0 item bank in patients with upper extremity disorders

  Dutch sample (n = 521) US sample (n = 246)
Level 1 center (n = 303) Level 2 center (n = 218) Total (n = 521)
Age, mean (SD) 50 (17) 53 (15) 51 (17) 48 (14)
Gender, n (%)
 Male 159 (53) 109 (50) 268 (51) 76 (31)
 Female 144 (47) 109 (50) 253 (49) 170 (69)
Country of birth, n (%)
 Netherlands 276 (91) 161 (65) 437 (86)  
 Other 27 (9) 44 (20) 71 (14)  
 Missing 0 (0) 13 (15) 0 (0)  
Social status, n (%)
 Single 110 (36) 69 (32) 179 (34)  
 Married/living together 155 (51) 127 (58) 282 (54)  
 Living apart together 15 (5) 4 (2) 19 (4)  
 Living with parents 16 (5) 6 (3) 22 (4)  
 Other 7 (3) 12 (5) 19 (4)  
Educational level, n (%)
 < high school degree 34 (11) 40 (18) 74 (15) 6 (2)
 High school degree 99 (33) 75 (33) 174 (33) 53 (22)
 Some college 16 (5) 14 (6) 30 (6) 81 (33)
 College degree 122 (40) 72 (33) 194 (37) 80 (32)
 Advanced degree 32 (11) 17 (8) 49 (9) 26 (11)
Employment status, n (%)
 Full time 141 (47) 84 (39) 217 (43)  
 Part time 55 (18) 40 (18) 93 (18)  
 Student 20 (7) 5 (2) 25 (5)  
 Unpaid/volunteer/household 13 (4) 18 (8) 31 (6)  
 Retired 49 (16) 40 (18) 88 (17)  
 Unemployed 6 (2) 10 (5) 14 (3)  
 Other 19 (6) 21 (10) 40 (8)  
Duration of complaints, n (%)
 < 1 month 135 (45) 22 (10) 157 (30)  
 1–3 months 39 (13) 22 (10) 61 (12)  
 3–6 months 42 (14) 30 (14) 72 (14)  
< 6 months (DIF) 216 (72) 74 (34) 290 (56)  
 6–12 months 20 (7) 36 (17) 56 (11)  
 1–2 years 8 (3) 46 (21) 54 (10)  
 2–5 years 2 (1) 31 (14) 33 (6)  
 5 years 1 (0) 31 (14) 32 (6)  
≥ 6 months (DIF) 31 (11) 144 (66) 175 (33)  
 Unknown/missing 56 (19) 0 (0) 56 (11)  
Location of paina, n (%)
 Shoulder(s) 137 (45) 190 (87) 318 (63)  
 Arm(s) 125 (41) 142 (65) 259 (51)  
Shoulder/arm (DIF)b 132 (44) 136 (62) 268 (80)  
 Hand(s) 105 (35) 59 (27) 161 (32)  
 Finger(s) 64 (21) 49 (22) 112 (22)  
Hand/wrist (DIF)b 62 (21) 7 (3) 69 (20)  
DF-PROMIS-UE v2.0, mean (SD) T-scores 34.7 (3.6) 33.4 (9.1) 33.9 (8.9) 36.5 (7.0)
DASH, mean (SD) T-scores 35.6 (22.1) 36.5 (21.0) 35.9 (21.6)  
QuickDASH, mean (SD) T-scores 36.8 (22.1) 38.1 (21.8) 37.3 (22.0)  
MHQ-ADL, mean (SD) T-scores 61.4 (31.0) 74.5 (25.6) 66.7 (29.6)  
  1. Abbreviations in alphabetic order: DASH Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand, DF-PROMIS-UE v2.0 Dutch-Flemish translated version of the PROMIS Upper Extremity v2.0 item bank, DIF Differential item functioning, MHQ-ADL Michigan Hand Questionnaire-Activities of Daily Living subscale, n Number, SD Standard deviation, % Percentage
  2. aMultiple answers were allowed, bFor the DIF analysis regarding location of complaints only patients who reported either pain in shoulder/arm or hand/wrist were included