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Table 2 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the Dutch and US samples

From: Graded response model fit, measurement invariance and (comparative) precision of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS® Upper Extremity V2.0 item bank in patients with upper extremity disorders

 Dutch sample (n = 521)US sample (n = 246)
Level 1 center (n = 303)Level 2 center (n = 218)Total (n = 521)
Age, mean (SD)50 (17)53 (15)51 (17)48 (14)
Gender, n (%)
 Male159 (53)109 (50)268 (51)76 (31)
 Female144 (47)109 (50)253 (49)170 (69)
Country of birth, n (%)
 Netherlands276 (91)161 (65)437 (86) 
 Other27 (9)44 (20)71 (14) 
 Missing0 (0)13 (15)0 (0) 
Social status, n (%)
 Single110 (36)69 (32)179 (34) 
 Married/living together155 (51)127 (58)282 (54) 
 Living apart together15 (5)4 (2)19 (4) 
 Living with parents16 (5)6 (3)22 (4) 
 Other7 (3)12 (5)19 (4) 
Educational level, n (%)
 < high school degree34 (11)40 (18)74 (15)6 (2)
 High school degree99 (33)75 (33)174 (33)53 (22)
 Some college16 (5)14 (6)30 (6)81 (33)
 College degree122 (40)72 (33)194 (37)80 (32)
 Advanced degree32 (11)17 (8)49 (9)26 (11)
Employment status, n (%)
 Full time141 (47)84 (39)217 (43) 
 Part time55 (18)40 (18)93 (18) 
 Student20 (7)5 (2)25 (5) 
 Unpaid/volunteer/household13 (4)18 (8)31 (6) 
 Retired49 (16)40 (18)88 (17) 
 Unemployed6 (2)10 (5)14 (3) 
 Other19 (6)21 (10)40 (8) 
Duration of complaints, n (%)
 < 1 month135 (45)22 (10)157 (30) 
 1–3 months39 (13)22 (10)61 (12) 
 3–6 months42 (14)30 (14)72 (14) 
< 6 months (DIF)216 (72)74 (34)290 (56) 
 6–12 months20 (7)36 (17)56 (11) 
 1–2 years8 (3)46 (21)54 (10) 
 2–5 years2 (1)31 (14)33 (6) 
 5 years1 (0)31 (14)32 (6) 
≥ 6 months (DIF)31 (11)144 (66)175 (33) 
 Unknown/missing56 (19)0 (0)56 (11) 
Location of paina, n (%)
 Shoulder(s)137 (45)190 (87)318 (63) 
 Arm(s)125 (41)142 (65)259 (51) 
Shoulder/arm (DIF)b132 (44)136 (62)268 (80) 
 Hand(s)105 (35)59 (27)161 (32) 
 Finger(s)64 (21)49 (22)112 (22) 
Hand/wrist (DIF)b62 (21)7 (3)69 (20) 
DF-PROMIS-UE v2.0, mean (SD) T-scores34.7 (3.6)33.4 (9.1)33.9 (8.9)36.5 (7.0)
DASH, mean (SD) T-scores35.6 (22.1)36.5 (21.0)35.9 (21.6) 
QuickDASH, mean (SD) T-scores36.8 (22.1)38.1 (21.8)37.3 (22.0) 
MHQ-ADL, mean (SD) T-scores61.4 (31.0)74.5 (25.6)66.7 (29.6) 
  1. Abbreviations in alphabetic order: DASH Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand, DF-PROMIS-UE v2.0 Dutch-Flemish translated version of the PROMIS Upper Extremity v2.0 item bank, DIF Differential item functioning, MHQ-ADL Michigan Hand Questionnaire-Activities of Daily Living subscale, n Number, SD Standard deviation, % Percentage
  2. aMultiple answers were allowed, bFor the DIF analysis regarding location of complaints only patients who reported either pain in shoulder/arm or hand/wrist were included