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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the study participants

From: The roles of lumbar load thresholds in cumulative lifting exposure to predict disk protrusion in an Asian population

VariablesMale, N = 252
N (%)
Female, N = 301
N (%)
All, N = 553
N (%)
Age, mean + SD (years)49.8 + 11.751.3 + 9.450.6 + 10.5
 <  4055 (21.8)37 (12.3)92 (16.6)
 40~ < 5051 (20.2)71 (23.6)122 (22.1)
 50~ < 6095 (37.7)142 (47.2)237 (42.9)
>  6051 (20.2)51 (16.9)102 (18.4)
BMI, mean + SD (kg/m2)25.6 + 3.124.1 + 3.824.8 + 3.5
 <  2473 (29.0)151 (50.2)224 (40.5)
 24~ <  27103 (40.8)93 (30.9)196 (35.4)
>  2776 (30.2)57 (18.9)133 (24.1)
Lifetime work tenure (years)
 <  1559 (23.4)76 (25.2)135 (24.4)
 15~ < 3082 (32.5)127 (42.2)209 (37.8)
>  30111 (44.0)97 (32.3)208 (37.7)
 missing0 (0.0)1 (0.3)1 (0.1)
Low back pain (within 6 months)211 (84.1)246 (83.1)457 (83.6)
Cigarette smoking (pack-years)
 0138 (54.7)288 (95.7)426 (77.0)
 1~ <  2043 (17.1)13 (4.3)56 (10.1)
>  2070 (27.9)0 (0.1)70 (12.7)
 missing1 (0.3)0 (0.0)1 (0.2)
Exercisea (Yes)171 (67.9)185 (62.5)356 (65.0)
  1. BMI body mass index, SD standard deviation
  2. aYes means ever having regular exercise for 30 min or longer each session, at least one session per week, minimum duration of 3 months, from age of 12 years to the present time