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Table 1 Participant eligibility criteria

From: Better Knee, Better Me™: effectiveness of two scalable health care interventions supporting self-management for knee osteoarthritis – protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
Fulfil National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [3] clinical criteria for osteoarthritis:
• Age > 45 years;
• Have activity related joint pain; and
• Have morning stiffness ≤30 min.
Average knee pain severity ≥4 on 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS, where 0 = no pain, 10 = worst pain possible) in the past week
History of knee pain on most days for at least 3 months
Aged < 81 years – due to potential safety reasons and additional co-morbidities
Body mass index (BMI) ≥ 28 kg/m2 and < 41 kg/m2. The lower BMI limit was chosen according to recommendations [39] that VLCD are effective in supporting weight loss in people with a BMI > 27. The upper limit was chosen as these individuals often require more extensive intervention and for possible safety reasons
Member of Medibank with a level of cover that includes arthroplasty surgery
Able to give informed consent and to participate fully in the interventions and assessment procedures
Willing to follow advice for self-management, participate in exercise/physical activity and/or participate in a weight loss program if part of their treatment program
Have the ability to weigh themselves (e.g. have access to the same set of bathroom scales)
Booked for knee surgery on either knee
Have had all eligible knee joints replaced by arthroplasty
Knee surgery within the past 6 months
Unable to speak or read English
Self-reported diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis or other inflammatory arthritis
Other medical condition or upcoming medical procedures that in the opinion of the research staff and/or investigators would preclude participation
Private health insurance claims related to cancer treatment or inpatient neurological rehabilitation in the previous 12 months, palliative care, or acquired brain injury
Unable to use/access a telephone and internet
For those identified as at risk from the pre-exercise and falls screening, doctor does not give clearance
Used low-calorie meal replacement products (e.g. Optifast/Optislim) for weight loss in previous 6 months
Currently, or in the past 6 months, undertaking regular strengthening exercises for the knee
Unable to undertake VLCD for medical reasons including:
i. Self-reported diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes
ii. Self-reported Type 2 diabetes requiring insulin or other medication apart from metformin
iii. Self-reported warfarin use
iv. Stroke or cardiac event in previous 6 months
v. Unstable heart condition
vi. Fluid intake restriction
  1. BMI Body mass index, VLCD Very low calorie diet