Skip to main content

Table 2 Univariate and multivariate regression analyses of factors associated with increased falls and fracture risk

From: Applying the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework to determine the predictors of falls and fractures in people with osteoarthritis or at high risk of developing osteoarthritis: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

 Risk of fallsRisk of fractures
Univariate analysisMultivariate analysisFinal modelUnivariate analysisMultivariate analysisFinal model
IRR95% CIIRR95% CIIRR95% CIIRR95% CIIRR95% CIIRR95% CI
Presence of OA
Knee OA only0.970.91, 1.04  0.920.85, 1.000.860.72, 1.02  0.730.56, 0.94
Hip OA only1.070.95, 1.21  1.010.88, 1.171.050.76, 1.45  0.810.52, 1.26
Knee and hip OA1.101.02, 1.20  0.920.82, 1.031.321.06, 1.64  0.900.62, 1.29
Personal factors
Age1.001.00, 1.011.001.00, 1.011.001.00, 1.011.011.00, 1.021.011.00, 1.021.011.00, 1.02
Female1.171.10, 1.241.141.07, 1.221.121.04, 1.201.461.25, 1.711.210.99, 1.46 
Previous history of falls1.561.48, 1.641.511.42, 1.601.501.40, 1.601.491.29, 1.721.281.07, 1.521.381.13, 1.69
Depression1.011.01, 1.011.011.00, 1.011.001.00, 1.011.021.01, 1.031.011.00, 1.03 
> 1 co-morbid conditions1.131.05, 1.211.050.98, 1.12 1.501.22, 1.761.331.10, 1.601.451.17, 1.81
Opioid use1.201.08, 1.331.070.95, 1.211.601.22, 2.101.350.96, 1.89 
Bisphosphonate use 1.781.48, 2.141.641.32, 2.051.781.40, 2.27
Environmental factors
Married0.920.87, 0.981.000.91, 1.09 0.760.66, 0.890.800.64, 1.00 
Lived alone1.131.06, 1.201.131.02, 1.241.020.94, 1.101.300.10, 1.531.080.84, 1.38
Impairments in body function and structures
Knee pain1.000.99, 1.001.001.00, 1.00 1.000.99, 1.001.000.99, 1.00 
Knee stiffness1.031.01, 1.041.021.00, 1.051.051.00, 1.091.020.96, 1.09
Flexor strength0.930.89, 0.96 0.970.88, 1.0 
Extensor strength0.960.94, 0.980.970.94, 0.990.990.97, 1.020.950.90, 1.000.960.90, 1.01
Activity limitations
Physical function1.001.00, 1.011.001.00, 1.00 1.001.00, 1.011.000.99, 1.00 
Chair stands0.720.59, 0.870.810.64, 1.010.810.46, 1.43 
20 m walk test0.820.73, 0.931.030.85, 1.250.500.35, 0.710.580.34, 0.990.850.51, 1.42
400 m walk test1.001.00, 1.001.001.00, 1.001.001.00, 1.001.001.00, 1.001.001.00, 1.00 
Participation restrictions
Employed0.900.85, 0.950.940.87, 1.00 0.820.71, 0.950.890.74, 1.06 
Physical activity1.001.00, 1.001.001.00, 1.001.001.00, 1.00 
Sport and recreation1.001.00, 1.001.001.00, 1.001.001.00, 1.001.000.99, 1.001.000.99, 1.001.000.99, 1.00
  1. OA osteoarthritis, IRR incident rate ratios, 95% CI 95% confidence intervals
  2. Final model for falls risk included presence of OA, age, gender, previous history of falls, depression, living situation, extensor strength, mobility limitations (400 m walk test) and difficulties with sport and recreation
  3. Final model for fracture risk included presence of OA, age, previous history of falls, number of co-morbid conditions, bisphosphonate use, mobility limitations (20 m walk test) and difficulties with sport and recreation
  4. Significant results (p ≤ 0.05) in bold