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Table 2 Summary of risk factors for posttraumatic heterotopic ossification and synostosis. Blank fields represent no data/undetermined. N/A: not applicable because of conservative treatment

From: Chronic dysphagia caused by Laryngo-vertebral Synostosis after anterior fusion for cervical spine trauma: a case report

FactorsPosttraumatic heterotopic ossification
[12,13,14,15,16]
Posttraumatic synostosis in the extremities [9,10,11]Laryngo-vertebral synostosis [7, 8]
ForearmAnklePrevious reportsPresenting case
DemographicYoung age (< 30) at the injuryYes  NoYes
Male sexYes YesYesYes
African American raceYes   No
Trauma-relatedSystemic injury severityYes    
:SystemicHead TraumaYesYes   
Spinal cord injuryYes  YesYes
:LocalExtensive soft tissue damage1YesYes   
High-energy injury mechanismYesYes2YesYesYes
Fractures in both sides of synostosis at the same level Yes   
Fracture-dislocation3YesYesYes Yes
Comminuted fractureYesYes   
Dissemination of bone dust or debrisYesYes Yes 
Hematoma formationYes    
Surgery-relatedExtensive surgical dissectionYesYes N/A 
Prolonged waiting time for surgery Yes N/AYes
Prolonged immobilization Yes   
Delayed rehabilitation Yes  Yes
Prominent implant YesPossible4N/A 
Local infection  Possible5 Yes
Primary bone graft Yes N/AYes
  1. 1. including open fracture, blast injury, and traumatic amputation of the extremities
  2. 2. including fracture with syndesmosis injury, which is usually associated with high-energy mechanism
  3. 3. including Monteggia fracture in the elbow, and tibiotalar dislocation in the ankle
  4. 4. including syndesmotic screw
  5. 5. only significant in the univariate analysis