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Table 4 Changes in LMM characteristics throughout the season (n = 18)

From: The effect of low back pain and lower limb injury on lumbar multifidus muscle morphology and function in university soccer players

 Pre-SeasonEnd-Season%Change or Change
PRONE
 CSA (cm2)8.52 ± 1.528.65 ± 1.481.54 ± 5.04%
 CSA asymmetry (%)2.87 ± 1.743.36 ± 3.560.49 ± 2.94
Thickness (cm)
 Rest2.89 ± 0.412.83 ± 0.40−2.14 ± 6.33
 Contracted3.32 ± 0.423.26 ± 0.45−2.23 ± 5.71
 % change15.24 ± 6.0415.50 ± 6.37−0.12 ± 5.56
STANDING
 CSA (cm2)10.12 ± 1.889.91 ± 1.57−1.99 ± 8.18
 CSA asymmetry (%)3.43 ± 3.072.76 ± 2.42−0.68 ± 1.77
Thickness (cm)
 Rest3.34 ± 0.353.26 ± 0.36−2.36 ± 4.45
 Contracted3.44 ± 0.423.41 ± 0.43−0.88 ± 2.71
 % change3.49 ± 3.824.61 ± 3.871.49 ± 3.33
  1. bold = Significant difference (p < 0.05) between pre-season and end-season measurements