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Table 1 Summary of the included studies

From: Applicability of augmented reality in orthopedic surgery – A systematic review

Wu JR et alReal-time advanced spinal surgery via visible patient model and augmented reality system.2014PlacementProjectorYes
Abe Y et alA novel 3D guidance system using augmented reality for percutaneous vertebroplasty: technical note.2013PlacementHMDYes
Navab N et alCamera augmented mobile C-arm (CAMC): calibration, accuracy study, and clinical applications.2010PlacementMonitorYes
Heining SM et alPedicle screw placement under video-augmented flouroscopic control: first clinical application in a cadaver study2006PlacementMonitorYes
Elmi-Terander A et alFeasibility and Accuracy of Thoracolumbar Minimally Invasive Pedicle Screw Placement With Augmented Reality Navigation Technology2018PlacementMonitorYes
Elmi-Terander A et alPedicle Screw Placement Using Augmented Reality Surgical Navigation With Intraoperative 3D Imaging: A First In-Human Prospective Cohort Study2019PlacementMonitorYes
Ma L et alAugmented reality surgical navigation with ultrasound-assisted registration for pedicle screw placement: a pilot study2017PlacementProjectorYes
Gibby JT et alHead-mounted display augmented reality to guide pedicle screw placement utilizing computed tomography2019PlacementHMDYes
U-Thainual P et alMR image overlay guidance: system evaluation for preclinical use2013PlacementMonitorYes
Fischer GS et alMRI image overlay: application to arthrography needle insertion2007PlacementMonitorYes
Fichtinger G et alImage overlay guidance for needle insertion in CT scanner2005PlacementMonitorYes
Fischer M et alPreclinical usability study of multiple augmented reality concepts for K-wire placement2016PlacementMonitorYes
Andress S et alOn-the-fly augmented reality for orthopedic surgery using a multimodal fiducial2018PlacementHMDYes
Befrui N et al3D augmented reality visualization for navigated osteosynthesis of pelvic fractures2018PlacementMonitorYes
Londei R et alIntra-operative augmented reality in distal locking2015PlacementMonitorYes
Ma L et alThree-dimensional augmented reality surgical navigation with hybrid optical and electromagnetic tracking for distal intramedullary nail interlocking2018PlacementProjectorYes
Wang H et alPrecision insertion of percutaneous sacroiliac screws using a novel augmented reality-based navigation system: a pilot study2016PlacementHMDYes
Fotouhi J et alPlan in 2-D, execute in 3-D: an augmented reality solution for cup placement in total hip arthroplasty2018PlacementMonitorYes
Ogawa H et alA Pilot Study of Augmented Reality Technology Applied to the Acetabular Cup Placement During Total Hip Arthroplasty2018PlacementMonitorYes
Liu H et alAugmented Reality Based Navigation for Computer Assisted Hip Resurfacing: A Proof of Concept Study2018PlacementHMDYes
Fallavollita P et alAn augmented reality C-arm for intraoperative assessment of the mechanical axis: a preclinical study2016OsteotomiesMonitorYes
Cho HS et alAugmented reality in bone tumour resection: An experimental study2017Tumor SurgeryMonitorYes
Cho HS et alCan Augmented Reality Be Helpful in Pelvic Bone Cancer Surgery? An In Vitro Study2018Tumor SurgeryMonitorYes
Gavaghan K et alEvaluation of a portable image overlay projector for the visualisation of surgical navigation data: phantom studies2012Tumor SurgeryProjectorYes
Shen F et alAugmented reality patient-specific reconstruction plate design for pelvic and acetabular fracture surgery2013TraumaMonitorYes
Van Duren BH et alAugmented reality fluoroscopy simulation of the guide-wire insertion in DHS surgery: A proof of concept study2018TraumaMonitorYes
Hiranaka T et alAugmented reality: The use of the PicoLinker smart glasses improves wire insertion under fluoroscopy2017TraumaHMDYes
Yeo CT et alThe effect of augmented reality training on percutaneous needle placement in spinal facet joint injections2011Training / EducationMonitorYes
Ponce B et alEmerging technology in surgical education: combining real-time augmented reality and wearable computing devices2014Training / EducationHMDYes
Ponce B et alTelementoring: use of augmented reality in orthopaedic education: AAOS exhibit selection2014Training / EducationMonitorYes
Condino S et alHow to Build a Patient-Specific Hybrid Simulator for Orthopaedic Open Surgery: Benefits and Limits of Mixed-Reality Using the Microsoft HoloLens2018Training / EducationHMDYes