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Table 4 Associations between self-reported factors at baseline and musculoskeletal pain in elbows/hands at follow-up

From: Neck and upper extremity pain in sonographers – a longitudinal study

  Pain at follow-upModel 1a (unadjusted)Model 2bModel 3cModel 4d
 NN (%)PRCIPRCIPRCIPRCI
Elbow/hand pain at baseline
 No pain14525 (17)1 1   1 
 Pain6340 (63)3.68(2.46–5.51)3.60(2.40–5.42)  3.45(2.29–5.22)
Years as a professional sonographer
 0.1–1311032 (29)1 1     
 13.1–369832 (33)1.13(0.76–1.70)1.43(0.86–2.39)    
Sonography (h/week)
 1–1810531(30)1 1     
 19–4010334 (33)1.12(0.75–1.67)1.19(0.80–1.77)    
Echocardiography
 No5617 (31)1 1     
 Yes15248 (32)0.96(0.61–1.52)0.96(0.61–1.51)    
Bedside examinations
 No/Seldom14542 (29)1 1     
 A few times per week/Daily6222 (35)1.23(0.81–1.87)1.20(0.79–1.83)    
Ergonomic adjustments possible         
 Yes11736 (31)1 1     
 No8729 (33)1.08(0.72–1.62)1.09(0.74–1.62)    
Good visual conditions
 Yes7926 (33)1 1     
 No12538 (30)0.92(0.61–1.39)0.87(0.58–1.31)    
Satisfaction with computer workstation arrangements
 Very satisfied/Rather satisfied12839 (30)1 1     
 Neutral4716 (34)1.12(0.69–1.80)1.13(0.71–1.80)    
 Rather/Very dissatisfied289 (32)1.02(0.58–1.92)1.13(0.63–2.05)    
MEI
 Unexposed/Low (11–15)336 (18)1 1     
 Medium/High (16–33)16557 (63)1.90(0.89–4.04)1.87(0.89–3.95)    
Job demands (cut-off: 2.44)
 Low10829 (27)1 1     
 High10036 (36)1.32(0.86–1.99)1.30(0.87–1.94)    
Job control (cut-off: 2.83)
 Low11339 (35)1 1     
 High9526 (27)0.80(0.53–1.21)0.83(0.55–1.26)    
Job support (cut-off: 2.87)          
 Low12243 (35)1 1     
 High8622 (26)0.73(0.48–1.13)0.76(0.49–1.16)    
Sensory demands (cut-off: 80)
 Low11227 (24)1 1 1 1 
 High9538 (40)1.65(1.10–2.50)1.63(1.08–2.45)1.63(1.08–2.45)1.46(1.00–2.12)
  1. Calculated with Poisson regression as the prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results in boldface are statistically significant
  2. a Pair-wise, unadjusted
  3. b Pair- wise, adjusted for height and physical exercise
  4. c Multivariate model with exposures with p < 0.05 in model 2, adjusted for height and physical exercise
  5. d Multivariate model with exposures with p < 0.05 in model 2, adjusted for height and physical exercise and for pain at baseline