Skip to main content

Table 2 Summary of the Risk of Bias Assessment based on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for the Cohort Studies

From: A systematic literature review of spinal brace/orthosis treatment for adults with scoliosis between 1967 and 2018: clinical outcomes and harms data

  SelectionComparabilityOutcome 
Primary AuthorYearStudy DesignStudy LimitationsQ1Q2Q3Q4Q5Q6Q7Q8Risk of Bias
Weiss2006Prospective cohort studyFemale participants only, no control cohort, no a priori sample size calculations discussed, no discussion of blinded assessment, poor brace compliance, poor reporting qualityHigh
Weiss2009Prospective cohort studyNo control cohort, no a priori sample size calculations discussed, no discussion of brace compliance, no discussion of blinded assessment, poor reporting qualityHigh
De Mauroy2011Retrospective cohort studyRetrospective design, no control cohort, non-blinded assessment, ill defined/non-standardised follow-up periods, unable to account for potential confounding factors, poor reporting qualityHigh
De Mauroy2016Prospective cohort studyNo control cohort, no a priori sample size calculations discussed, analysis restricted to a small compliant subset of the sample, non-specific diagnosis used, no discussion of blinded assessment, poor reporting qualityHigh
Palazzo2017Retrospective cohort studyRetrospective design, no control cohort, female participants only, no blinded assessment, unable to account for potential confounding factorsHigh
Zaina2018Prospective cohort studyPilot study, no control cohort, very short-term follow-upHigh
  1. Abbreviations: Q Question, ROB Risk of Bias
  2. Symbols: = Criteria satisfied, ✗ = Criteria not satisfied
  3. NOS Criteria:
  4. 1) Representativeness of the intervention cohort
  5. 2) Selection of non-intervention cohort
  6. 3) Ascertainment of intervention
  7. 4) Demonstration that outcome of interest was not present at start of study
  8. 5) Comparability of cohorts on the basis of the design or analysis
  9. 6) Assessment of outcome
  10. 7) Was follow up long enough for outcomes to occur?
  11. 8) Adequacy of follow up of cohorts