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Table 1 Data extraction table

From: A systematic review of inflammatory cells and markers in human tendinopathy

Study Sample size Presentation of tendinopathy Additional factors associated with inflammationa Site QA Method (cells) Inflammatory cell + b Cell types Method (markers) Inflammatory markers
Campbell 2014 [13] 18 Partial tear Mean number of steroid injections 1.5 RC 8/11 IHC 100% MP qPCR IL-21 receptor protein and mRNA
Cetti 2003 [14] 60 Rupture High activity level AT 8/11 IHC 100% NP n/a n/a
Dakin 2015 [15] 32 Pain or partial tear n/a RC 9/11 IHC 100% MP n/a n/a
Dakin 2017 [16] 17 Pain or rupture n/a AT 7/11 IHC 100% MP qPCR, IF IL-8 mRNA, protein
Hackett 2016 [17] 39 Calcific n/a RC 9/11 IHC 100% MP, TC, MC n/a n/a
Klatte-schulz 2018 [18] 26 Pain or ruptures High activity level AT 8/11 IHC 88% MP, NS qPCR IL-6, IL-10, IL-33. IL1B, TNFa, TGFB1, COX-2
Kragsnaes 2014 [19] 50 Pain 44% received steroid injection AT 9/11 IHC 96% MP, TC, MC, NKC n/a n/a
Matthews 2006 [20] 38 Rupture Mean number of steroid injections 1.8 RC 8/11 IHC 100% MP, TC, MC n/a n/a
Millar 2010 [21] 20 Pain or partial tear High activity level with mean number of 1.5 steroid injections RC 8/11 IHC 100% MP, TC, MC n/a n/a
Millar 2012 [22] 15 Pain or partial tear High activity level with mean number of 1.6 steroid injections RC 8/11 IHC 100% MP, TC, MC IHC, qPCR IL-6, IL-8 protein and mRNA
Millar 2016 [23] 10 Pain or partial tear High activity level with mean number of 1.7 steroid injections RC 7/11 IHC 100% MP, TC, MC qPCR IL-17A mRNA
Mosca 2017 [24] 13 Pain n/a RC 9/11 IHC 100% MP qPCR IL-33 protein
Pecina 2010 [25] 34 Pain n/a PT 8/11 IHC 100% NS n/a n/a
Schubert 2005 [26] 10 Pain or rupture 40% received steroid injection AT 6/11 IHC 80% MP, TC, GC n/a n/a
Scott 2008 [27] 22 Pain n/a PT 7/11 IHC 23% MC n/a n/a
Thankam 2017 [28] 15 Pain or partial tear Glenohumeral arthritis observed LHBT 7/11 IHC 27% MP, NP n/a n/a
Åström 1995 [29] 145 Pain or partial tear n/a AT 6/11 H&E 9% NS n/a n/a
Gaida 2012 [30] 23 Pain n/a AT 8/11 H&E 0% / ELISA TNFa protein
Gumina 2006 [31] 38 Partial tear n/a RC 10/11 H&E 100% MP, LC n/a n/a
Kannus 1991 [32] 891 Rupture n/a Various 9/11 H&E 0% / n/a n/a
Khan 1996 [33] 28 Pain n/a PT 9/11 H&E 0% / n/a n/a
Lian 2007 [34] 23 Pain n/a PT 7/11 H&E 0% / n/a n/a
Ljung 1999 [35] 6 Pain n/a ECRB 6/11 H&E 0% / n/a n/a
Longo 2008 [36] 88 Rupture n/a RC 8/11 H&E 0% / n/a n/a
Longo 2009 [37] 51 Rupture n/a LHBT 8/11 H&E 0% / n/a n/a
Popp 1997 [38] 11 Pain n/a PT 5/11 H&E 0% / n/a n/a
Potter 1995 [39] 20 Pain n/a ECRB 7/11 H&E 0% / n/a n/a
Rolf 1997 [40] 60 Pain 72% received NSAIDs and 27% received steroid injection AT 8/11 H&E 0% / n/a n/a
Rolf 2017 [41] 20 Rupture Sign of infection in 40% (bacteria), 5% received steroid injection
7/20 high activity level
AT 9/11 H&E 50% MP, TC, MC n/a n/a
Shalabi 2002 [42] 15 Pain n/a AT 8/11. H&E 0% / n/a n/a
Singaraju 2008 [43] 6 Pain n/a LHBT 6/11 H&E 100% NS n/a n/a
Tillander 2002 [44] 23 Pain, partial tear or rupture n/a RC 6/11. H&E 0% / n/a n/a
Zabrzynski 2017 [45] 35 Pain n/a LHBT 9/11 H&E 9% NS n/a n/a
Ackermann 2013 [46] 18 Rupture n/a AT 7/11 n/a n/a / MD IL-12, IL-17, IL-1B, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 protein
Alfredson 2000 [47] 4 Pain n/a ECRB 6/11 n/a n/a / MD PGE2
Alfredson 2003 [48] 10 Pain n/a AT 7/11 n/a n/a / MA IL 1–6, 10–15 mRNA
Alfredson 2001 [49] 10 Pain n/a PT 7/11 H&E n/a NS MD PGE2
Alfredsson 1999 [50] 5 Pain n/a AT 6/11 n/a n/a / MD PGE2
Chaudhury 2016 [51] 16 Pain n/a RC 8/11 n/a n/a / qPCR IL-8 mRNA
Dean 2015 [52] 9 Pain 100% received steroid injection RC 7/11 n/a n/a / qPCR TNF-a, IL-1b mRNA
Fabis 2014 [53] 9 Rupture n/a RC 7/11 n/a n/a / qPCR TNF-a, IL-10 mRNA
Fu 2002 [54] 11 Pain n/a PT 7/11 n/a 0% / IHC, WB COX-2, TGF-b protein, PGE2
Gilmer 2015 [55] 62 Pain or partial tear n/a LHBT 9/11 H&E n/a NS n/a n/a
Jelinsky 2011 [56] 23 Pain, tear, or rupture 52% received steroid injection Various 8/11 n/a 0% / qPCR IL13A2, FGFR1, FGFR2, IL-17D mRNA
Jozsa 1980 [57] 120 Rupture or calcific n/a Various 8/11 H&E n/a NS n/a n/a
Legerlotz 2012 [58] 20 Pain or rupture n/a AT PT 7/11 n/a n/a / qPCR COX-2, IL6, IL6R mRNA
Millar 2015 [59] 17 Pain or partial tear n/a RC 8/11 n/a n/a / qPCR IL-33 mRNA
Pingel 2012 [60] 14 Pain 100% received steroid injection AT 8/11 n/a n/a / qPCR COX-1, IL-1R, TGF-B1, bFGF mRNA
Pingel 2013 [61] 27 Pain 100% received steroid injection AT 8/11 n/a n/a / qPCR IL-1b, IL-6, IL-10, COX-2, TGF-b, TNF-a mRNA
Robertson 2012 [62] 35 Partial tear or rupture n/a RC 8/11 n/a n/a / qPCR IL-1b, IL-6, TNF-a, COX-2 mRNA
Shindle 2011 [63] 24 Partial tear or Rupture Joint inflammation RC 8/11 n/a n/a / qPCR IL-1b, IL-6, COX-2, TNF-a mRNA
Takeuchi 2001 [64] 7 Calcific n/a RC 5/11 IHC n/a MP n/a n/a
Waugh 2015 [65] 10 Pain n/a AT PT 7/11 n/a n/a / MD IL-1b, IL-2, IL-6,IL-8, IL-10 protein
  1. Table sorted by method used to detect the presence of inflammatory cells
  2. Locations: AT Achilles tendon, PT patellar tendon, RC rotator cuff tendon, QT Quadriceps tendon, LHBT Long head biceps tendon, ECRB extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon, CF Common flexor tendon, CE Common extensor tendon, various (studies with specimens from more than 3 locations)
  3. Cells: MP Macrophages, MC Mast-cells, TC T-cells, LC Lymphocytes, NP Neutrophils, GC granulocytes, NKC NK-cells, NS not specified
  4. Detection method: H&E Hematoxylin & Eosin, qPCR quantitative polymerase chain reaction, IHC immunohistochemistry, IF immunofluorescence, MD Micro-dialysis, WB western blot, EIA enzyme immunoassay, ELISA Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay
  5. a Additional factors associated with inflammation description on patient subgroup and previous treatments
  6. bInflammatory cell + refers to the percentage of specimens showing at least 1 kind of inflammatory cells, regardless of typing