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Table 4 Predictors of the combined baseline HOOS and KOOS score

From: Using routine referral data for patients with knee and hip pain to improve access to specialist care

 Combined KOOS and HOOSFinal linear regression (number = 319)
numberUnivariate
coefficient (95%
confidence interval)
p-valueMultivariate coefficient (95% confidence Interval)p-value*
Age at baseline601−0.4 (− 0.5, − 0.3)< 0.001−0.2 (− 3.5, − 0.1)0.009
BMI score mean (standard deviation)373− 0.9 (− 1.2, − 0.6)< 0.001−0.75, (− 1.1, − 0.4)< 0.001
Smoking dataNon-smoker406Ref0.021Ref< 0.001
Smoker−8.7 (−15.3, −2.1)−14.0 (− 20.5, − 7.5)
Former smoker−4.7 (− 10.2, 0.8)1.3 (− 4.0, 6.5)
Joint typeHip601Ref0.003Ref0.010
Knee7.7 (2.7, 12.8)7.9 (1.9, 13.9)
Sign or symptomNo549Ref0.002Ref0.030
Yes16.6 (6.2, 27.0)12.0 (1.2, 22.8)
Therapeutic or preventive procedureNo549Ref< 0.001Ref0.003
Yes−7.9 (−11.9, −3.9)−6.9 (−11.5, −2.3)
Medication historyNon-opioidNo429Ref< 0.001Ref 
Yes−16.3 (−23.7, −9.0)−10.6 (−17.6, −3.6)0.003
OpioidsNo429Ref< 0.001Ref< 0.001
Yes−18.3 (−23.0, −13.6)−14.47 (−19.4, −9.5)
  1. Variables not included in the final multivariate model as they were not significant at 10% level: gender, Welsh index of multiple deprivation (median and quintiles), geographical area, joint type, BMI categories, Charleston co-morbidity index (median and score) number of co-morbidities, medication history, number of semantic types, referral letter length, body related concept, diagnostic procedure, daily or recreational activity, disease or syndrome, finding, functional concept, health and care activity, injury or poisoning, occupational activity, physiologic function, pharmacologic substance, tissue, therapeutic or preventative procedure.
  2. NSAID Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
  3. *variables significantly associated with combined HOOS/KOOS score at 10% level