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Table 2 Association between explanatory variables and a favourable functional improvement after 1 year

From: The association between believing staying active is beneficial and achieving a clinically relevant functional improvement after 52 weeks: a prospective cohort study of patients with chronic low back pain in secondary care

Yes versus noNumbers (%)Unadjusted Odds ratio (99% CI)P-valueAdjusted Odds ratio (99% CI)P-value
‘Pain is a warning signal to stop physical activity’ (6–10, yes)488 (72.5)0.92 (0.65–1.29)0.6290.90 (0.57–1.42)0.542
‘I think that finding the cause of pain is important for my recovery’ (6–10, yes)652 (97.0)0.71 (0.22–2.30)0.4530.75 (0.23–2.46)0.538
‘I think x-rays and MR scans are an important part of my recovery’ (6–10, yes)588 (87.5)0.95 (0.52–1.75)0.8360.95 (0.51–1.76)0.836
‘I have been advised by a general practitioner to stay active despite your back pain?’ (yes)391 (67.3)0.80 (0.51–1.27)0.2190.80 (0.50–1.28)0.218
‘I have been advised by a physiotherapist or chiropractor to stay active despite your back pain?’ (yes)510 (79.7)0.99 (0.59–1.65)0.9520.98 (0.58–1.66)0.933
Chronic pain (duration > 12 weeks, yes)610 (90.6)0.25 (0.12–0.53)< 0.001*0.25 (0.12–0.54)< 0.001*
High pain (Numerical pain rating, 6–10)320 (47.6)0.72 (0.48–1.07)0.033*0.75 (0.50–1.13)0.069
High risk STarT Back Tool group (yes)237 (35.3)0.59 (0.39–0.91)0.002*0.60 (0.39–0.94)0.003*
  1. NOTE: Odds for achieving a favourable outcome. Comparisons between explanatory variables and a clinically relevant improvement (≥ 30%) in the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) score after 1 year. Adjusted for age, gender, and educational level (College level). *Indicates statistically significant differences. Follow-up data was available for 673 patients (82.5%)