Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: The association between believing staying active is beneficial and achieving a clinically relevant functional improvement after 52 weeks: a prospective cohort study of patients with chronic low back pain in secondary care

 Total cohort N = 816Pain is not a warning signal N = 220Pain is a warning signal N = 596Differences
Age, years (sd)52.7 (13.7)54.2 (13.8)52.2 (13.7)P = 0.068a
Female (%)454 (55.6)129 (58.6)325 (54.5)P = 0.303b
College-level education (%)d288 (35.3)81 (36.8)207 (34.7)P = 0.621b
Employed (%)1728 (89.4)205 (93.2)523 (88.1)P = 0.039b
Sick leave (%)128 (15.7)16 (7.3)112 (18.8)P < 0.001b
Current smoker (%)138 (16.9)31 (14.1)107 (18.0)P = 0.208b
History of low back surgery (%)98 (12.0)21 (9.6)77 (12.9)P = 0.225b
Co-morbidity, self-reported (%)145 (17.8)22 (10.0)123 (20.6)P < 0.001b
Health-related quality of life (0–1), [iqr]0.66 [0.44; 0.78]0.72 [0.65; 0.78]0.66 [0.39; 0.72]P < 0.001c
Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, 0–23 points, high score = high disability, (sd)14.0 (4.9)11.9 (4.9)14.7 (4.7)P < 0.001a
Chronic pain (>  12 weeks = yes), (%)739 (90.6)196 (89.1)543 (91.1)P = 0.418b
Numerical Pain Rating (0–10), (sd)5.2 (2.4)4.6 (2.2)5.4 (2.5)P < 0.001a
STarT Back Tool, High risk, (%)1301 (37.0)42 (19.2)259 (43.5)P < 0.001b
‘I think that finding the cause of pain is important for my recovery’ (%)2790 (96.9)210 (95.9)580 (97.3)P = 0.358b
‘I think x-rays and MR scans are important part for my recovery’ (%)2717 (88.0)182 (83.1)535 (89.8)P = 0.015b
‘Have you been advised by your general practitioner to stay active despite your back pain?’, yes (%)3475 (68.3)132 (69.8)343 (67.6)P = 0.647b
‘Have you been advised from a physiotherapist or chiropractor to stay active despite your back pain?’, yes (%)4611 (79.5)161 (79.7)450 (79.4)P = 1.000b
  1. NOTE: Self-reported data from patient questionnaires. aTested by the two-sample t-test. bTested by Fisher’s Exact Test. cTested by The Mann–Whitney U-test. dCollege level education equals bachelor level. 1Two missing values. 2One missing value. 3122 missing values. 447 missing values