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Table 4 Fat infiltration percentage of the multifidus and erector spinae before and 24 months after surgery

From: Quantitative analysis of paraspinal muscle atrophy after oblique lateral interbody fusion alone vs. combined with percutaneous pedicle screw fixation in patients with spondylolisthesis

 OLIF (n = 32)OLIF+PPSF (n = 41)P a
Multifidus (%)
 Pre-op15.91 ± 5.3016.13 ± 7.010.885
 Post-op 2 years14.38 ± 3.2149.38 ± 20.54< 0.001
P b0.721< 0.001 
Erector spinae (%)
 Pre-op11.63 ± 3.0511.93 ± 3.220.686
 Post-op 2 years11.22 ± 3.1222.60 ± 4.99< 0.001
P b0.578< 0.001 
  1. OLIF Oblique lateral interbody fusion, PPSF Percutaneous pedicle screw fixation
  2. a Comparison between two groups
  3. b Comparison between pre- and post-operation