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Table 1 Most common subtypes of systemic amyloidosis

From: Musculoskeletal pathology as an early warning sign of systemic amyloidosis: a systematic review of amyloid deposition and orthopedic surgery

Subtype of Systemic Amyloidosis ATTRwt ATTRm AA AL AB2M
Protein Deposited Transthyretin (wildtype) Transthyretin (mutated) Serum Amyloid A Immunoglobulin light chain Beta-2 Microglobulin
Protein Function and Source Thyroxine and retinol binding protein made in liver and choroid plexus Thyroxine and retinol binding protein made in liver and choroid plexus Acute phase protein made in liver that accumulates with sustained and chronic inflammation Immunoglobulin produced by clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow Component of major histocompatibility complex type 1, which is on all nucleated cells
Other Names for the Disease Senile restrictive cardiomyopathy Familial cardiomyopathy, familial neuropathy Secondary systemic amyloidosis Primary systemic amyloidosis Dialysis-related amyloidosis
Major Organs Involved Heart, musculoskeletal, nervous Heart, nervous, musculoskeletal Kidney, nervous, heart, lung Heart, kidney, liver, gastro-intestinal, nervous, lung, soft tissue Autonomic nervous, musculoskeletal
Implicated in Musculoskeletal Pathology Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Treatment Novel therapies that decrease transthyretin production or stabilize transthyretin to prevent further amyloid deposition Novel therapies that decrease transthyretin production or stabilize transthyretin to prevent further amyloid deposition Treatment of underlying inflammatory condition Chemotherapy directed at plasma cell clone High flux hemodialysis membrane, renal transplantation
  1. ATTRwt wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis, ATTRm mutant transthyretin amyloidosis, AA amyloid A amyloidosis, AL immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis, AB2M beta-2 microglobulin amyloidosis