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Table 3 Comparison between the cases without LCS and those with LCS

From: Surgical outcomes of the thoracic ossification of ligamentum flavum: a retrospective analysis of 61 cases

  Non-LCS n = 15 LCS n = 46
Age, average, average (range), years 48.1 ± 17.3 (22–78) 66.4 ± 13.1 (27–90)*
Sex, female/male, No. 5/10 16/30
Concurrent spinal canal stenosis, No. Cervical [Non-C-OPLL/C-OPLL] 8 (53.3%) [2/6] 15 (32.6%) [9/6]
Height, average (range), cm 164.0 ± 10.2 (148–179) 159.0 ± 9.9 (134–176)
Body weight, average (range), Kg 83.0 ± 27.3 (56.3-100.7) 65.9 ± 13.6 (44.2-103.4)*
Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Lumbar YAM, average (range), % 104.0 ± 15.6 (93–115) 103.1 ± 17.9 (75–147)
Femoral YAM, average (range), % 90.5 ± 27.6 (71–110) 82.8 ± 19.2 (62–137)
MMT, average (range), Preoperative 4.0 ± 0.9 (2–5) 3.1 ± 1.5 (0–5)*
Operation Surgical procedure LAM/PDF, No 13/2 31/15
Decompressed OLF levels, average (range), No. 1.5 ± 1.1 (1–4) 1.5 ± 0.8 (1–4)
Outcomes T-JOA score, average (range), points Preoperative 6.3 ± 1.8 (2-8.5) 5.7 ± 2.0 (2–10)
Postoperative 8.7 ± 1.4 (5.5–11)♰ 7.8 ± 1.6 (4.5–11)♰*
Recovery rate of T-JOA score, average (range), % 47.9 ± 29.2 (0-100) 36.4 ± 29.0 (-10-100)
VAS, average (range), mm Preoperative 60.5 ± 27.6 (0-100) 75.7 ± 23.7 (30–100)
Postoperative 45.5 ± 29.5 (0–90) 55.2 ± 28.6 (10–100)♰
Radiological findings Preoperative global spinal alignment LL, average (range), degrees 42.8 ± 15.7 (11–65) 36.3 ± 14.8 (2–67)
PI, average (range), degrees 46.3 ± 5.6 (11–52) 46.6 ± 8.2 (22–63)
SS, average (range), degrees 30.9 ± 9.4 (8–58) 30.0 ± 10.4 (8–58)
TLK, average (range), degrees 12.5 ± 7.6 (-2-31) 11.3 ± 13.3 (-8-54)
TK, average (range), degrees 28.4 ± 11.8 (13–59) 22.4 ± 11.4 (2–50)
SVA, average (range), mm 18.5 ± 42.1 (-54-99) 55.6 ± 51.1 (-25-183)*
CT DISH, No. 3 (20%) 16 (34.8%)
OLF, Unilateral/Bilateral/Bridged, No. 1/8/6 11/31/4*
Thickness of OLF, average (range), mm 4.8 ± 2.4 (2.4–10) 3.2 ± 1.7 (1-8.9)*
MRI OLF, Round/Beak, No. 8/7 29/17
Modic change, No. 3 (20%) 26 (56.5%)*
HIA, No. 11 (73.3%) 40 (87.0%)
  1. Abbreviation: MMT manual muscle test, T-JOA the Japanese Orthopaedic Association for thoracic myelopathy, VAS visual analog scale, CT computed tomography, MRI magnetic resonance imaging, OPLL ossification of the longitudinal ligament, LCS lumbar spinal canal stenosis, YAM young adult mean, LAM laminectomy, PDF posterior decompression with fusion, OLF ossification of the ligamentum flavum, LL lumbar lordosis, PI pelvic incidence, SS sacral slope, TLK thoracolumbar kyphosis, TK thoracic kyphosis, SVA sagittal vertical axis, DISH diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, HIA high-intensity areas
  2. *p < 0.05 when compared to the non-LCS group
  3. p < 0.05 when compared to the preoperative status