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Table 2 Comparison between the cases with poor clinical outcomes and those with good outcomes

From: Surgical outcomes of the thoracic ossification of ligamentum flavum: a retrospective analysis of 61 cases

  Poor n = 31 Good n = 30
Age, average, average (range), years 65.9 ± 15.2 (22–90) 57.8 ± 16.3 (20–81)*
Sex, female/male, No. 13/18 8/22
Duration of disease, average (range), months 20.4 ± 29.2 (1-144) 14.7 ± 17.6 (1–72)
Concurrent spinal canal stenosis, No. Cervical [Non-C-OPLL/C-OPLL] 8 (25.8%)[4/4] 15 (50.0%)[7/8]
LCS [Spondylosis/Spondylolisthesis/L-OPLL] 27 (87.1%)[14/12/1] 19 (63.3%)[12/6/1]*
Height, average (range), cm 157.1 ± 11.0 (134–176) 163.4 ± 8.2 (148–179)*
Body weight, average (range), Kg 65.8 ± 14.7 (44.2-103.4) 74.4 ± 22.4 (46.7-100.7)
Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Lumbar YAM, average (range), % 101.9 ± 14.7 (75–116) 104.3 ± 19.9 (77–147)
Femoral YAM, average (range), % 90.0 ± 24.8 (62–137) 77.3 ± 9.6 (66–95)
MMT, average (range), Preoperative 3.1 ± 1.4 (0–5) 3.5 ± 1.4 (0–5)
Operation Surgical procedure LAM/PDF, No 23/8 21/9
Decompressed OLF levels, average (range), No. 1.5 ± 0.9 (1–4) 1.5 ± 0.9 (1–4)
Operative time, average (range), min 150.6 ± 90.3 (48–436) 163.0 ± 105.8 (56–460)
Blood loss, average (range), mL 259.2 ± 726.4 (1-4090) 311.5 ± 463.2 (1-1725)
Outcomes Recovery rate of T-JOA score, average (range), % 15.8 ± 13.4 (-10-36.4) 63.4 ± 19.9 (40–100)*
VAS, average (range), mm Preoperative 77.2 ± 21.4 (30–100) 66.1 ± 28.4 (0-100)
Postoperative 56.6 ± 27.0 (10–100)♰ 47.9 ± 30.9 (10–100)
Complication, No 4 (12.9%) [Dural tear, Hematoma, Vertebral fracture, SSI = 1] 4 (13.3%) [Dural tear = 2, Hematoma, Enlargement of T-OPLL = 1]
Radiological findings Local kyphosis, average (range), degrees Preoperative 8.9 ± 10.2 (0–45) 9.4 ± 6.2 (1–32)
Postoperative 10.6 ± 11.0 (0–50) 11.8 ± 7.7 (2–37)
CT DISH, No. 9 (29.0%) 10 (33.3%)
OLF, Unilateral/Bilateral/Bridged, No. 7/20/4 5/19/6
Thickness of OLF, average (range), mm 3.2 ± 1.6 (1-6.7) 4.0 ± 2.3 (1–10)
MRI OLF, Round/Beak, No. 18/13 19/11
Modic change, No. 13 (41.9%) 11 (36.7%)
HIA, No. 24 (77.4%) 27 (90.0%)
  1. Abbreviation: MMT manual muscle test, T-JOA the Japanese Orthopaedic Association for thoracic myelopathy, VAS visual analog scale, CT computed tomography, MRI magnetic resonance imaging, OPLL ossification of the longitudinal ligament, LCS lumbar spinal canal stenosis, YAM young adult mean, LAM laminectomy, PDF posterior decompression with fusion, OLF ossification of the ligamentum flavum, SSI surgical site infection, DISH, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, HIA high-intensity areas
  2. *p < 0.05 when compared to the poor outcome group
  3. p < 0.05 when compared to the preoperative status