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Table 1 Demographics

From: Surgical outcomes of the thoracic ossification of ligamentum flavum: a retrospective analysis of 61 cases

  n = 61
Age, average, average (range), years 61.9 ± 16.1 (20–90)
Sex, female/male, No. 21/40
Duration of disease, average (range), months 17.6 ± 24.2 (1-144)
Follow-up period, average (range), months 32.1 ± 16.0 (12–60)
Preoperative comorbidities, No. HT 18 (29.5%)
DM 8 (13.1%)
IHD 9 (14.8%)
Concurrent spinal canal stenosis, No. Cervical [Non-C-OPLL/C-OPLL] 23 (37.7%) [11 (18.0%)/12 (19.7%)]
Thoracic [T-OPLL] 8 (13.1%)
LCS [Spondylosis/Spondylolisthesis/L-OPLL] 46(75.4%) [26 (42.6%)/18 (29.5%)/2 (3.3%)]
Height, average (range), cm 160.2 ± 10.1 (134–179)
Body weight, average (range), Kg 70.1 ± 19.2 (44.2-103.4)
BMI, average (range), Kg/m2 27.2 ± 6.0 (17.6–52.4)
Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Lumbar YAM, average (range), % 103.2 ± 17.2 (75–147)
Femoral YAM, average (range), % 83.7 ± 19.4 (66–137)
MMT, average (range), Preoperative 3.3 ± 1.4 (0–5)
Operation Surgical procedure LAM/PDF, No 44 (72.1%)/17 (27.9%)
Decompressed OLF levels, average (range), No. 1.5 ± 0.9 (1–4)
Simultaneous lumbar decompression, No 10 (16.4%)
Operative time, average (range), min 156.7 ± 97.6 (48–460)
Blood loss, average (range), mL 284.9 ± 606.8 (1-4090)
Outcomes T-JOA score, average (range), points Preoperative 5.9 ± 1.9 (2–10)
Postoperative 8.0 ± 1.6 (4.5–11)♰
Recovery rate of T-JOA score, average (range), % 39.2 ± 29.2 (-10-100)
VAS, average (range), mm Preoperative 72.2 ± 25.1 (0-100)
Postoperative 52.7 ± 28.8 (0-100)♰
Complication, No Dural tear 3 (4.9%)
Hematoma 2 (3.3%)
Vertebral fracture 1 (1.6%)
SSI 1 (1.6%)
Enlargement of T-OPLL 1 (1.6%)
Radiological findings Preoperative global spinal alignment LL, average (range), degrees 37.9 ± 15.2 (2–67)
PI, average (range), degrees 46.5 ± 7.6 (22–63)
SS, average (range), degrees 30.2 ± 10.1 (8–58)
TLK, average (range), degrees 11.6 ± 12.1 (-8-54)
TK, average (range), degrees 23.9 ± 11.7 (2–59)
SVA, average (range), mm 46.6 ± 51.3 (-54-183)
Local kyphosis, average (range), degrees Preoperative 9.2 ± 8.4 (0–45)
Postoperative 11.2 ± 9.4 (0–50)
CT DISH, No. 19 (31.1%)
OLF, Unilateral/Bilateral/Bridged, No. 12 (19.7%)/39 (63.9%)/10 (16.4%)
Thickness of OLF, average (range), mm 3.6 ± 2.0 (1–10)
OLF segments, average (range), No. 3.1 ± 2.5 (1–12)
MRI OLF, Round/Beak, No. 37 (60.7%)/24 (39.3%)
Modic change, No. 29 (47.5%)
HIA, No. 51 (83.6%)
  1. Abbreviation: BMI body mass index, MMT manual muscle test, T-JOA the Japanese Orthopaedic Association for thoracic myelopathy, VAS visual analog scale, CT computed tomography, MRI magnetic resonance imaging, HT hypertension, DM diabetes mellitus, HL hyperlipidemia, IHD ischemic heart disease, OPLL ossification of the longitudinal ligament, LCS lumbar spinal canal stenosis, YAM young adult mean, LAM laminectomy, PDF posterior decompression with fusion, OLF ossification of the ligamentum flavum, SSI surgical site infection, LL lumbar lordosis, PI pelvic incidence, SS sacral slope, TLK thoracolumbar kyphosis, TK thoracic kyphosis, SVA sagittal vertical axis, DISH diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, HIA high-intensity areas
  2. p < 0.05 when compared to the preoperative status