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Table 3 Distribution and prevalence of co-occurring musculoskeletal pain among individuals with persistent low back pain grouped by study population

From: Distribution and prevalence of musculoskeletal pain co-occurring with persistent low back pain: a systematic review

1st Author Year Axial pain n/N (%) [non-weighted] ♀ / ♂ (if reported) Extremity pain n/N (%)[non-weighted] ♀ / ♂ (if reported) Other co-occurring MSK pain sites/no. of pain sites n/N (%)[non-weighted] ♀ / ♂ (if reported) No. of options for pain sites and regions in addition to LBP
General population
 Jiménez-Trujillo 2019 [37] + neck: 2963/5189 (57.1) ♀ 2089/2963 (70.5)a ♂ 874/2963 (29.5)a   + headached: 1130/5189 (21.8) ♀ 860/1130 (76.1) ♂ 270/1130 (23.9)   2 (neck, headache)
 Fujii 2018 [34]   + knee: 639/3100 (20.6) + headached: 1004/3100 (32.4) + arms, legs or joints: 1336/3100 (43.1) 3 (knee, headache, arms/legs/joints)
 Takahashi 2018 [47]   + knee: 364/1378 (26.4)a, b    1 (knee)
 Nordstoga 2017 [43]    +  1–2 pain sites: 2331/7523 (31.0)a ♀ 1180/2331 (50.6)a ♂ 1151/2331 (49.4)a +  3–8 pain sites: 4412/7523 (58.6) ♀ 2978/4412 (67.5)a ♂ 1434/4412 (32.4)a 8 (neck, shoulders/ upper arms, elbows, wrists/ hands, upper back, hips, knees, ankles/ feet)
 Kamada 2014 [38]   + knee: 152/ 605 (25.1)c   1 (knee)
 Di lorio 2007 [32]   + hip: 62a/306 (20.3) + knee: 87a/306 (28.4) + foot: 99a/306 (32.4)   3 (hip, knee, foot)
 Weiner 2003 [48]   + hip: 80a/208 (38.7) + knee: 99a/208 (47.6)   2 (hip, knee)
 Natvig 2001 [42]    +  1–3 pain sites: 167/531 (31.5)c ♀100/167 (59.9)c ♂ 67/167 (40.1)c +  4–9 pain sites (“widespread”): 244/531 (46.0)c ♀ 162/244 (66.4)c ♂ 82/244 (33.6)c 9 (headd, neck, shoulder, elbow, hand/wrist, upper back, hip, knee or ankle/foot)
 Kjellman 2001 [39] + neck-shoulder: 32a/100 (32.0)    1 (neck/shoulder)
 Hoddevik 1999 [36]     + other MSK pain: 5057/6422 (78.7)a ♀ 3252/5057 (64.3)a ♂ 1805/5057 (35.7)a 1 (other MSK)
Working population
 Andersen 2013 [30] + neck-shoulder: ♀ 632/1089 (58.0) + knee: ♀ 294/1089 (27.0)   2 (neck/shoulder, knee)
 Parot-Schinkel 2013 [45]    +  1–3 pain sites: 353/616 (57.3)a ♀ 145/264 (≈ 55)a ♂ 208/352 (≈ 59)a +  4–8 pain sites: 82/616 (13.3) ♀ 50/264 (≈ 19) ♂ 32/352 (≈ 9) 8 (neck, shoulder/ arm, elbow/forarm, wrist/ hand, upper back, hip/thigh, knee/lower leg, ankle/foot)
Clinical population
 Rundelle 2019 [46] + neck: 415/899 (46.2) + pelvic or groin: 251/899 (27.9) + headached: 260/899 (28.9) + arms, legs or joints: 801/899 (89.1) + widespread: 266/899 (29.6) 6 (neck, pelvic/groin, headache, stomach, arms/legs/joints, widespread)
 Herman 2018 [35] + neck: 611/1129 (54.1)a     1 (neck)
 MacLellan 2017 [40]    +  1 pain site: 177/416 (42.6)a + ≥2 pain sites: 161/416 (38.7)a 4 (knee, other MSK [not specified which other MSK for those with persistent LBP (i.e. upper- and lower extremity, spinal /headached)]
 Panagopoulos 2014 [44]    + chest-abdomen-groin: 583/2974 (19.6) ♀ 303/1576 (19.2)a ♂ 280/1398 (20.0)a 1 (trunk)
 Elfving 2009 [33] + neck: 43/265 (16.2)a + thoracic: 26/265 (9.8)a + neck and thoracic: 116/265 (43.8)a    3 (neck, thoracic, neck and thoracic)
 Manchikanti 2003 [41] + neck and/or thoracic: 150/300 (50.0)    1 (neck and/or thoracic)
 Daviese 1998 [31] + neck: 367/2007 (18.3) ♀ 218/367 (59.4) ♂ 149/367 (40.6) + shoulder-arm-hand: 331/2007 (16.5) ♀ 199/331 (60.1) ♂ 132/331 (39.9) + pelvic: 112/2007 (5.6) ♀ 71/112 (63.4) ♂ 41/112 (36.6) + buttock-leg-foot: 1006/2007 (50.1) ♀ 595/1006 (59.1) ♂ 411/1006 (40.9) + thorax: 203/2007 (10.1) ♀ 118/203 (58.1) ♂ 85/203 (41.9) + other body site(s): 1299/2007 (64.7) ♀ 779/1299 (60.0) ♂ 520/1299 (40.0) 6 (neck, shoulder/arm/hand, pelvis, buttock/leg/foot, thorax, other body site(s))
  1. Abbreviations: LBP low back pain, NR not reported, MSK musculoskeletal
  2. a Calculated by us
  3. b Among those with moderate, severe and very severe persistent LBP as those with very mild and mild persistent LBP were omitted in paper
  4. c Information provided by the author of the article
  5. d Headache was not part of our search strategy, but we included the prevalences of headache for the otherwise 5 eligible studies where this was reported
  6. e The study by Rundell et al. also included abdominal pain and the study by Davies et al. included both abdominal pain, pain in the head-face-mouth and anal-perineal-genital pain that is not reported