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Table 1 Main characteristics of the 19 included articles grouped by study population

From: Distribution and prevalence of musculoskeletal pain co-occurring with persistent low back pain: a systematic review

1st Author Year Country Study design Year of study (baseline) Sample size n invited (n at baseline [%]) {n analysed}a Age (yrs) and sexa mean [SD], age category n [%], quartile Q2 [Q1, Q3] (♀ n [%]) Method for assessing prevalence of persistent LBP and co-occurring musculoskeletal pain
General population
 Jiménez-Trujillo 2019 [37] Spain Cross-sectional (2014) approx. 37500b (22,321 [59.5]b) {5189} ♀ 18 to 34; 203 [6.3]c 35 to 54; 888 [27.3]c 55 to 74; 1265 [38.9]c ≥75; 894 [27.5]c ♂ 18 to 34; 133 [6.9]c 35 to 54; 723 [37.3]c 55 to 74; 745 [38.4]c ≥75; 338 [17.4]c Questionnaire and Interview (EHISS)
(3250 [62.6])
 Fujii 2018 [34] Japan Cross-sectional (2015) 270,000 (52,353 [19.4]) {3100} 44.5 [11.2] (1483 [48.0])   Questionnaire (own)
 Takahashi 2018 [47] Japan Cross-sectional (2011 to 2012) 34,802 (14,364 [41.3]) {1378}d ♀ < 50; 101 [15.1]c 50 to 59; 158 [23.6]c 60 to 69; 263 [39.3]c ≥70; 147 [22.0]c ♂ < 50; 128 [18.0]c 50 to 59; 172 [24.3]c 60 to 69; 287 [40.5]c ≥70; 122 [17.2]c Questionnaire (own)
(669 [48.5])  
 Nordstoga 2017 [43] Norway Prospective cohort (1995 to 1997) 93,898 (65,237 [69.5]) {7523} 50.3 [12.0]b (4484 [59.6]) Questionnaire (adapted SNQ)
 Kamada 2014 [38] Japan Cross-sectional (2009) 6000 (4559 [76.0]) {605} 62.8 [10.6] (303 [50.1]) Questionnaire (modified KNEST)
 Di lorio 2007 [32] Italy Cross-sectional (1998) 1270 (958 [75.4]) {306} 74,5 [6,6] (209 [68.3]) Interview (own) Physical examination (including SPPB)
 Weiner 2003 [48] USA Cross-sectional (1997 to 1998) 3075 (2766 [90.1]) {208} 73.5 [2.9] (134a [64.4]) Questionnaire (own) Physical examination (EPESE, Health ABC functional capacity scale)
 Natvig 2001 [42] Norway Cross-sectional (1994) 4577a (2893 [63.2]) {531}e 43.1 [14.1]e (334 [62.9]) Questionnaire (SNQ)
 Kjellman 2001 [39] Sweden Retrospective cohort (1985) 213 (213 [100]) {100} 40.4 [2.9] (NR) Questionnaire or Interview (own + diagnostic codes)
 Hoddevik 1999 [36] Norway Cross-sectional (1994 to 1997) 106,244 (67,338 [63.4]) {6422} 40 to 42 yrs (3865 [60.2]) Questionnaire and Interview (own)
Working population
 Andersen 2013 [30] Denmark Prospective cohort (2004 to 2005) 12,744 (9949 [78.1]) {1089} 47.0 [8] (1089 [100]) Questionnaire (SNQ)
 Parot-Schinkel 2013 [45] France Cross-sectional (2002 to 2005) NR (3710 [approx. 90]) {616} NR (for target population 38.4 [10.4]) (264 [42.9]) Questionnaire (French version of SNQ)
Clinical population
 Rundell 2019 [46] USA Prospective cohort (2011 to 2013) 13376b (5239 [39.2]c) {899} 74.0 [6.7] (613 [68.0]) Interview (own + diagnostic codes)
 Herman 2018 [35] USA Cross-sectional (2016 to 2017) 6342 (2024 [31.9]c) {1129}c NR (NR) Questionnaire (own)
 MacLellan 2017 [40] Irland Retrospective cohort (2011 to 2015) 915 (915 [100]) {416} 44.6 [12.2] (NR) Interview (own) Physical examination (5 physical performance tests)
 Panagopoulos 2014 [44] Denmark Prospective cohort (2011 to 2012) 5791 (2974 [51.4]) {2974} 51.0 [15] (1546 [52.0]) Questionnaire (own)
 Elfving 2009 [33] Sweden Prospective cohort (NR) 362 (312 [86.2]) {265} 43.0 [NR] (NR) Questionnaire (own)
 Manchikanti 2003 [41] USA Cross-sectional (NR) 378 (378 [100]) {300} LBP only: 52.0 [1.3] (83 [55.0]) LBP + NP or TSP: 44.0 [1.1] (104 [69.0]) Interview (own) Physical examination (diagnostic blocks)
 Davies 1998 [31] UK Retrospective cohort (1989 to 1992) 5279 (5279 [100]) {2007} 52.0 [41, 65] 3176 [60.2]c   Interview (own recorded on data form incl. 9 body sites from IASP Subcommittee on Taxonomy, 1986)
  1. Abbreviations: EHISS European Health Interview Survey for Spain, EPESE Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies in the Elderly performance battery for lower extremity function, KNEST Knee Pain Screening Tool, LBP low back pain, NP neck pain, NR not reported, SD standard deviation, SNQ Standardised Nordic Questionnaire, SPPB Short Physical Performance Battery, TSP thoracic spine pain, Q1 lower quartile, Q2 median, Q3 upper quartile
  2. a With persistent low back pain
  3. b Data not published in paper and hence received after communication with first author or found in cited method paper
  4. c Calculated by authors
  5. d Includes moderate to very severe persistent low back pain (very mild and mild low back pain [n=1594] were omitted from analysis)
  6. e Unpublished data provided by first author that includes participants with persistent low back pain ≥8 wks n=531 (n=120 with localised persistent low back pain, n=167 with low back pain + 1–3 additional pain sites, n= 244 with low back pain + 4–9 additional pain sites)