Skip to main content

Table 3 Factors associated with the incidence of mild to severe depression at 24 months amongst participants without depression at baseline (N = 249)

From: Depression in patients with knee osteoarthritis: risk factors and associations with joint symptoms

  Univariable Multivariablea
RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI)
Age (years) 0.98 (0.94, 1.03) 1.00 (0.95, 1.04)
Female sex (n, %) 2.47 (1.19, 5.13) 2.51 (1.17, 5.37)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 1.00 (0.92, 1.09) 1.01 (0.93, 1.09)
Education
 School only (n, %) Reference Reference
 High school (n, %) 0.82 (0.23, 2.88) 0.68 (0.20, 2.27)
 University or higher (n, %) 0.75 (0.24, 2.34) 0.68 (0.23, 1.98)
Work status
 Full-time employed (n, %) Reference Reference
 Part-time/causal employment (n, %) 0.85 (0.29, 2.55) 0.74 (0.25, 2.18)
 Unemployed/home duties/retired (n, %) 1.22 (0.53, 2.81) 1.40 (0.54, 3.67)
Work type
 Manual (n, %) Reference Reference
 Office/professional (n, %) 0.83 (0.40, 1.72) 0.68 (0.33, 1.38)
WOMAC score/ 10 unit
 Pain (0–50) 1.05 (1.01, 1.09) 1.05 (1.02, 1.09)
 Function (0–170) 1.01 (1.01, 1.03) 1.02 (1.01, 1.03)
 Stiffness (0–20) 1.03 (0.95, 1.12) 1.03 (0.95, 1.11)
Multi-site joint pain, (n, %)
 No pain Reference Reference
 One site 1.43 (0.68, 3.01) 1.22 (0.58, 2.57)
 More than one site 2.73 (0.91, 8.22) 3.55 (1.31, 9.58)
Comorbidity, (n, %)
 No comorbidity Reference Reference
 One comorbidity 1.02 (0.50, 2.08) 1.13 (0.54, 2.38)
 More than one comorbidity 1.51 (0.23, 9.83) 1.34 (0.21, 8.66)
  1. a All multivariable analyses were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, baseline 25-(OH)D level, and intervention, except for age (adjusted for sex, BMI baseline 25-(OH)D level and intervention), sex (adjusted for age, BMI, baseline 25-(OH)D level and intervention) and BMI (adjusted for age, sex, baseline 25-(OH)D level and intervention)
  2. Mild to severe depression was defined as PHQ-9 scores ≥5