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Table 2 Factors associated with the prevalence of mild to severe depression at baseline (N = 397)

From: Depression in patients with knee osteoarthritis: risk factors and associations with joint symptoms

  Univariable Multivariablea
PR (95% CI) PR (95% CI)
Age (years) 0.96 (0.94, 0.99) 0.96 (0.94, 0.99)
Female sex (n, %) 1.55 (1.10, 2.18) 1.38 (0.98, 1.96)
BMI (kg/m2) 1.05 (1.02, 1.09) 1.05 (1.02, 1.08)
Education
 School only (n, %) Reference Reference
 High school (n, %) 0.63 (0.40, 1.00) 0.61 (0.39, 0.95)
 University or higher (n, %) 0.49 (0.33, 0.73) 0.50 (0.34, 0.74)
Work status
 Full-time employed (n, %) Reference Reference
 Part-time/causal employment (n, %) 0.80 (0.49, 1.29) 0.78 (0.49, 1.25)
 Unemployed/home duties/retired (n, %) 0.84 (0.57, 1.22) 1.10 (0.71, 1.70)
Work type
 Manual (n, %) Reference Reference
 Office/professional (n, %) 0.88 (0.62, 1.25) 0.85 (0.60, 1.22)
WOMAC score/ 10 unit
 Pain (0–50) 1.05 (1.03, 1.07) 1.05 (1.03, 1.07)
 Function (0–170) 1.02 (1.01, 1.02) 1.02 (1.01, 1.02)
 Stiffness (0–20) 1.08 (1.04, 1.12) 1.05 (1.02, 1.09)
Multi-site joint pain, (n, %)
 No pain Reference Reference
 One site 1.21 (0.85, 1.74) 1.06 (0.75, 1.51)
 More than one site 1.64 (0.93, 2.88) 1.73 (1.00, 2.98)
Comorbidity, (n, %)
 No comorbidity Reference Reference
 One comorbidity 1.08 (0.75, 1.55) 1.14 (0.80, 1.65)
 More than one comorbidity 2.13 (1.18, 3.86) 1.98 (1.03, 3.80)
  1. a All multivariable analyses were adjusted for age, sex, BMI and baseline 25-(OH)D level, except for age (adjusted for sex, BMI and baseline 25-(OH)D level), sex (adjusted for age, BMI and baseline 25-(OH)D level) and BMI (adjusted for age, sex and baseline 25-(OH)D level)
  2. Mild to severe depression was defined as PHQ-9 scores ≥5