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Table 3 Changes for responders (NRS) in lumbar stiffness and pain sensitivity (mechanical and thermal) following SMT

From: Changes in pain sensitivity and spinal stiffness in relation to responder status following spinal manipulative therapy in chronic low Back pain: a secondary explorative analysis of a randomized trial

Time Status Threshold GS PPT HPT
Pain Stiff Pain Stiff Pain Stiff
Post-SMT Responder 50% −0.13(− 0.79:0.53) −0.09(− 0.80:0.61) 179 (62:296)* 100(−25:225) 0.3(− 1.7:2.3) 0.9(− 1.1:3.0)
30% −0.30(− 0.83:0.23) −0.05(− 0.56:0.45) 151 (55:246)* 40(− 51:132) −0.3(− 1.9:1.3) 0.9(− 0.6:2.4)
0% 0.01(−0.30:0.32) − 0.09(− 0.41:0.23) 113 (57:169)* 41(− 17:98) 0.1(− 0.9:1.0) 0.3(− 0.6:1.3)
Non-Responder 50% 0.04(− 0.26:0.33) 0.05(− 0.25:0.35) 83 (31:135)* 21(− 32:74) 0.0(− 0.9:0.9) 0.2(− 0.7:1.1)
30% 0.12(− 0.20:0.44) 0.06(− 0.28:0.39) 81 (25:138)* 30(− 30:90) 0.1(− 0.8:1.1) 0.0(− 1.0:1.0)
0% 0.03(− 0.52:0.59) 0.40(− 0.16:0.97) 52(− 48:153) 9(− 94:112) 0.0(− 1.7:1.7) 0.3(− 1.5:2.0)
Follow-up Responder 50% − 0.31(− 0.99:0.38) 0.22(− 0.48:0.92) 214 (91:336)* 91(− 34:217) 0.1(−2.0:2.1) 0.8(− 1.4:2.9)
30% − 0.24(− 0.80:0.32) 0.09(− 0.41:0.58) 182 (81:283)* 53(−36:142) 0.1(− 1.6:1.7) 1.1(− 0.4:2.7)
0% 0.08(− 0.24:0.40) − 0.01(− 0.35:0.32) 103 (46:160)* 69 (8:130)* 0.5(− 0.4:1.5) 0.9(− 0.1:1.9)
Non-Responder 50% 0.15(− 0.16:0.45) − 0.11(− 0.42:0.20) 66 (13:120)* 41(−15:96) 0.7(− 0.2:1.6) 0.8(− 0.2:1.7)
30% 0.18(− 0.14:0.50) − 0.12(− 0.47:0.23) 61 (4:118)* 46(− 18:109) 0.8(− 0.2:1.7) 0.6(− 0.5:1.6)
0% 0.05(− 0.52:0.62) −0.13(− 0.68:0.42) 45(− 59:149) −5(− 105:95) 0.8(− 1.0:2.6) 0.5(−1.2:2.1)
  1. Mean changes in GS (N/mm), PPT (kPa) and HPT (degrees Celsius) in groups randomized to SMT at the stiffest (‘stiff’) or most pain-sensitive (‘pain’) segment (columns). Subgrouped (rows) by responder status are defined as 0, 30, and 50% improvement thresholds in patient-reported low back pain (NRS). Mean change refers to the difference in NRS between baseline and post-SMT, baseline, and follow-up, respectively, along with a 95% confidence interval. * = indicates a p-value < 0.05. SMT Spinal manipulative therapy, GS Global stiffness, PPT Pressure pain threshold, HPT Heat pain threshold, NRS Patient-reported low back pain