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Table 2 Changes for responders (ODI) in lumbar stiffness and pain sensitivity (mechanical and thermal) following SMT

From: Changes in pain sensitivity and spinal stiffness in relation to responder status following spinal manipulative therapy in chronic low Back pain: a secondary explorative analysis of a randomized trial

Time Status Threshold GS PPT HPT
Pain Stiff Pain Stiff Pain Stiff
Post-SMT Responder 50% − 0.20(− 0.70:0.31) − 0.13(− 0.77:0.52) 110 (19:200)* 94(− 24:211) 0.6(− 0.9:2.0) 1.2(− 0.7:3.1)
30% − 0.11(− 0.53:0.32) − 0.13(− 0.61:0.34) 103 (27:178)* 109 (24:195)* 0.2(− 1.1:1.4) 1.1(− 0.3:2.5)
0% −0.01(− 0.31:0.28) −0.06(− 0.38:0.26) 92 (39:145)* 62 (4:120)* 0.2(− 0.7:1.1) 0.5(− 0.5:1.4)
Non-Responder 50% 0.10(−0.23:0.42) 0.06(−0.25:0.37) 95 (37:153)* 19(− 36:75) − 0.2(− 1.1:0.8) 0.1(− 0.8:1.0)
30% 0.10(− 0.26:0.45) 0.11(− 0.24:0.45) 96 (34:159)* −6(−67:55) − 0.1(− 1.1:0.9) −0.1(− 1.1:0.9)
0% 0.16(−0.48:0.80) 0.26(−0.26:0.79) 135 (17:253)* − 45(− 141:50) − 0.7(− 2.6:1.2) 0.0(− 1.6:1.5)
Follow-up Responder 50% − 0.22(− 0.74:0.30) 0.12(− 0.50:0.74) 143 (48:237)* 91(−22:204) 1.3(− 0.2:2.8) 1.1(− 0.9:3.1)
30% 0.04(− 0.40:0.47) 0.07(− 0.41:0.55) 105 (28:182)* 125 (40:211)* 1.1(− 0.2:2.4) 0.5(− 1.0:2.0)
0% 0.20 (0–0.10:0.51) − 0.07(− 0.40:0.26) 87 (32:142)* 75 (15:135)* 0.9(− 0.0:1.8) 0.8(− 0.2:1.8)
Non-Responder 50% 0.19(−0.14:0.51) − 0.10(− 0.42:0.22) 70 (11:128)* 38(− 21:96) 0.3(− 0.7:1.3) 0.7(− 0.3:1.6)
30% 0.10(− 0.26:0.46) −0.12(− 0.48:0.24) 79 (15:143)* 6(− 57:70) 0.2(− 0.9:1.3) 0.9(− 0.2:2.0)
0% − 0.44(− 1.06:0.18) 0.00(− 0.54:0.54) 103(− 10:217) − 23(− 121:75) −0.6(− 2.5:1.2) 0.7(− 0.9:2.3)
  1. Mean changes in GS (N/mm), PPT (kPa) and HPT (degrees Celsius) in groups randomized to SMT at the stiffest (‘stiff’) or most pain-sensitive (‘pain’) segment (columns). Subgrouped (rows) by responder status are defined as 0, 30, and 50% improvement thresholds in disability (ODI). Mean change refers to the difference in ODI between baseline and post-SMT, baseline, and follow-up, respectively, along with a 95% confidence interval. * = indicates a p-value < 0.05. SMT Spinal manipulative therapy, GS Global stiffness, PPT Pressure pain threshold, HPT Heat pain threshold, ODI Oswestry disability index