Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of study participantsa

From: The effect of low back pain and neck-shoulder stiffness on health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional population-based study

  All (n = 1122) Men (n = 426) Women (n = 696) P valueb
Age, y c 54.2 ± 15.4 52.6 ± 15.5 55.3 ± 15.3 0.003*
BMI, kg/m2 22.7 ± 3.4 23.6 ± 3.1 22.2 ± 3.4 < 0.001*
Highest level of education, n (%)
 Primary school 6 (0.5) 3 (0.7) 3 (0.1)  
 Middle school 208 (18.5) 69 (16.2) 139 (20.0)  
 High school 602 (53.7) 249 (58.5) 353 (50.7)  
 Junior college or vocational school 214 (19.1) 58 (13.6) 156 (22.4)  
 Graduate degree 83 (7.4) 45 (10.5) 38 (5.5)  
 Other 9 (8.0) 2 (0.5) 7 (1.1)  
Lifestyle and medical history, n (%)d
 Working 1082 (96.4) 395 (92.7) 687 (98.7) < 0.001#
 Smokes 129 (11.5) 40 (9.3) 89 (12.8) 0.474
 Uses alcohol 481 (42.9) 290 (68.1) 191 (27.4) < 0.001#
 Diabetes 58 (5.2) 30 (7) 28 (4) 0.047#
 Hypertension 282 (25.1) 98 (23) 184 (26.4) 0.436
 Hyperlipidemia 145 (12.9) 37 (8.7) 108 (15.5) 0.004#
 Depression 5 (0.4) 0 (0) 5 (0.7) 0.163
 Antidiabetic medication 56 (5.0) 30 (7) 26 (3.7) 0.011#
 Antihypertensive medication 277 (24.7) 96 (22.5) 181 (26) 0.108
 Lipid-lowering medication 141 (12.6) 36 (8.5) 105 (15.1) 0.001#
 Analgesic medication 44 (3.9) 12 (2.8) 32 (4.6) 0.091
 Sleeping pills medications 37 (3.3) 7 (1.6) 30 (4.3) 0.015#
  1. aPreviously described in detail [1]. bSignificant differences between men and women are indicated by P < 0.05, by *Mann–Whitney U or #chi-square test. cAge and BMI are shown as mean ± S.D. dThe number (%) of subjects with each characteristic