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Table 3 Humerus shaft fractures among infants born in Sweden 1997 to 2014, birth-related (n = 188) and later (n = 142) by maternal, birth, and child characteristics, other fractures, and diagnoses

From: The epidemiology of infant shaft fractures of femur or humerus by incidence, birth, accidents, and other causes

  Population (n = 908,324) Humerus shaft fracture
Birth-related (n = 188) Later Age in months
< 6 (n = 96) 6 to 12 (n = 46)
n (%) n (%) p value* n (%) p value* n (%) p value*
Mother
 Obesity 302,623 (37) 81a (47) .007 46 (54) .001 21 (46) .285
 Preeclampsia 28,968 (3.2) 9 (5) .205 4 (4) .550 3 (7) .177
Birth
 Dystocic labor 107,215 (11.8) 43 (23) .000 12 (13) .753 8 (17) .249
 Shoulder dystocia 2005 (0.2) 69 (37) .000 16 (17) .000 0  
 Cesarean section 161,554 (18) 35 (19) .782 25 (26) .040 12 (26) .174
 Vacuum 69,101 (8) 47 (25) .000 10 (10) .331 2 (4) .581
 Forceps 2473 (0.3) 1 (0.5) .401 1 (1) .230 0  
Child
 Boy 469,339 (52) 123 (66) .000 58 (60) .106 25 (54) .831
 Multiple birth 26,645 (2.9) 13 (7) .004 4 (4) .369 5 (11) .011
 Breech 34,007 (3.3) 18 (10) .000 5 (5) .412 5 (11) .028
 Preterm 56,533 (6.2) 24 (13) .001 9 (9) .201 2 (4) 1.0
 SGAb (< 10th percentile) 94,244 (10.4) 16 (9) .541 14 (15) .181 9 (20) .052
 SGAb (<  2.5th percentile) 20,566 (2.3) 3 (2) .802 3 (3) .478 4 (10) .015
 LGAc (>  2.5th percentile) 32,141 (3.7) 50 (29) .000 13 (14) .001 0  
 Birth weight > 4000 g 169,479 (19) 82 (44) .000 32 (33) .000 4 (9) .089
 Injury of brachial plexus 1969 (0.1) 45 (24) .000 17d (18) .000 0  
Other diagnosis during infancy
 Osteogenesis imperfecta 76 (0.004)e 1 (0.5) .017 3 (3) .000 4f (9) .000
 Rickets or VDDg 261 (0.01)e 1 (0.5) .052 1 (1) .000 0  
 Maltreatment 1347 (0.07)e 0   12h (14) .000 2i (4) .000
  1. * Fisher’s test
  2. a17 missing BMI, bSmall-for-gestational age, cLarge-for-gestational age, d No reported accident (n = 8), ePer 1,855,267, fEntry in the Register of Children and Young Persons Subjected to Child Welfare Measures (n = 1) in connection with the fracture and OI diagnosis 21 days after the fracture, gVitamin D deficiency, hMaltreatment diagnosis (n = 9), entry in the Register of Children and Young Persons Subjected to Child Welfare Measures (n = 3); other diagnoses: subdural hemorrhage (n = 1), retinal hemorrhage (n = 1), rib fractures (n = 2), skull fractures (n = 1), iMaltreatment diagnosis (n = 2), entry only in the Register of Children and Young Persons Subjected to Child Welfare Measures (n = 0)