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Table 2 Femur shaft fractures diagnosed among infants born in Sweden 1997 to 2014, birth-related (n = 45) or later (n = 287), by maternal, birth, and child characteristics, accidents, and other diagnoses

From: The epidemiology of infant shaft fractures of femur or humerus by incidence, birth, accidents, and other causes

  Population (n = 908,324) Femur shaft fracture
Birth-related (n = 45) Later Age (months)
< 6 (n = 102) 6 to 12 (n = 185)
n (%) n (%) p value* n (%) p value* n (%) p value*
Mother
 Obesity 302,613 (37) 16a (46) .299 38 (43) .324 75 (45) .036
 Preeclampsia 28,706 (3.2) 1 (2) 1.0 7 (7) .043 10 (5) .089
Birth
 Dystocic labor 107,225 (11.8) 4 (9) .816 10 (10) .646 18 (10) .423
 Shoulder dystocia 2005 (0.2) 2 (4) .005 0   0  
 Cesarean section 161,554 (18) 34 (74) .000 30 (29) .003 32 (17) .915
 Vacuum 62,099 (6.8) 4 (9) .775 7 (7) 1.0 18 (10) .267
 Forceps 2473 (0.3) 0   1 (1) .243 0  
Child
 Boy 469,344 (52) 27 (60) .333 55 (54) .723 86 (47) .181
 Multiple birth 26,639 (2.9) 9 (20) .000 11 (11) .000 10 (5) .074
 Breech 33,998 (3.3) 31 (76) .000 10 (10) .005 5 (3) .564
 Preterm 56,521 (6.2) 11 (25) .008 18 (18) .000 12 (7) .878
 SGAb (< 10th percentile) 94,217 (10.4) 15 (36) .000 21 (21) .003 29 (16) .018
 SGAb (<  2.5th percentile) 20,561 (2.3) 4 (12) .008 6 (7) .020 5 (3) .610
 LGAc (>  2.5th percentile) 32,172 (3.7) 1 (3) 1.0 2 (2) .776 6 (3) 1.0
 Birth weight > 4000 g 169,517 (19) 5 (11) .251 9 (9) .013 33 (18) .843
 Injury of brachial plexus 1969 (0.1) 1 (2) .093 0   0  
Other diagnosis during infancy
 Osteogenesis imperfecta 70 (0.004)d 2 (4) .000 5 (5) .000 8e (4) .000
 Rickets or VDDf 259 (0.01)d 0   2 (2) .000 1 (0.5) .000
 Maltreatment 1347 (0.07)d 0   21g (20) .000 6 (3)h .000
  1. * Fisher’s test
  2. aMissing (n = 10), bSmall-for-gestational age, cLarge-for-gestational age, dPer 1,855,267, eEntry in the Register of Children and Young Persons Subjected to Child Welfare Measures (n = 1) in connection with the fracture and OI diagnosis 137 days after the fracture, fVitamin D deficiency, gMaltreatment diagnosis (n = 10), entry only in the Register of Children and Young Persons Subjected to Child Welfare Measures (n = 11); other diagnoses: subdural hemorrhage (n = 2), retinal hemorrhage (n = 1), rib fractures (n = 4), skull fractures (n = 2), hMaltreatment diagnosis (n = 4), entry only in the Register of Children and Young Persons Subjected to Child Welfare Measures (n = 2)