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Table 1 Means (± standard deviation) (normally distributed continuous data), medians (IQR) (non-normally distributed continuous data) and row participant percentages (n) (categorical data) for the independent variables grouped for participants dichotomised as a poor response (GROC ≤ + 1) or a positive response (GROC ≥ + 2) to the non-surgical multidisciplinary management of LBP. OR’s reflect either an increased (OR > 1) or decreased (OR < 1) odds of a poor response associated with higher scores (continuous measures expressed as a 1 unit increase in measure) or presence of patient characteristics (categorical measures)

From: A multisite longitudinal evaluation of patient characteristics associated with a poor response to non-surgical multidisciplinary management of low back pain in an advanced practice physiotherapist-led tertiary service

Variables Poor Response (n = 79) Positive Response (n = 99) Unadjusted OR (95% Confidence Intervals) P-Value
Demographic and Social Measures
 Age (years) 53.61 ± 14.39 53.74 ± 16 1 (0.98–1.02) 0.96
 Gender (% male (n)) 50.5% (48) 49.5% (47) 1.71 (0.94–3.12) 0.08*
 English First Language (% yes (n)) 43.5% (70) 56.5% (91) 0.68 (0.25–1.86) 0.46
 Highest Level of Education
 Completed Tafe/Trade/ University (% yes (n)) 30% (23) 70% (53) Referent  
 Completed Secondary School (% yes (n)) 53% (16) 47% (14) 2.63 (1.11–6.28) 0.03*
 School Incomplete (% yes (n)) 58% (37) 42% (27) 3.16 (1.58–6.34) 0.001*
 Work Status
 Employed (% yes (n)) 36% (29) 64% (52) Referent  
 Unemployed (% yes (n)) 58% (14) 42% (10) 2.51 (0.99–6.36) 0.05*
 Retired (% yes (n)) 45% (26) 55% (32) 1.46 (0.73–2.9) 0.28
 Married/Defacto Relationship (% yes (n)) 43% (44) 57% (59) 0.88 (0.48–1.6) 0.67
 Dependents (% yes (n)) 43% (21) 57% (28) 0.92 (0.47–1.78) 0.8
General and Global Health Measures
 Body Mass Index (kilogram/meters2) 30.61 ± 7.78 30.52 ± 7.11 1 (0.96–1.05) 0.94
 Disability Benefits (% yes (n)) 66% (21) 34% (11) 2.95 (1.32–6.57) 0.008*
 Smoking Status (% yes (n)) 56% (27) 44% (21) 1.9 (0.97–3.72) 0.06*
 Comorbidities (number) 2 (1–3) 1 (1–2) 1.03 (0.87–1.23) 0.72
 Total Body Pain Areas (number/18 body regions) 5 (3–8) 5 (3–7) 1.02 (0.94–1.12) 0.64
 Quality of Life (utility score/1) 0.54 (0.4–0.68) 0.65 (0.49–0.79) 0.11 (0.02–0.54) 0.007*
Psychological Measures
 DASS-21
 Depression Score (score/42) 10 (4–24) 8 (4–18) 1.02 (0.99–1.05) 0.14
 Anxiety Score (score/42) 8 (3–15) 6 (0–12) 1.02 (0.99–1.06) 0.23
 Stress Score (score/42) 12 (4–25) 12 (5–18) 1.02 (0.99–1.05) 0.23
 Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (score/60) 27.26 ± 13.65 32.2 ± 13.84 0.97 (0.95–1) 0.03*
 ÖMPSQ (score/100) 62.99 ± 14.31 55.16 ± 14.91 1.04 (1.02–1.06) 0.001*
 Patient Expectations of Benefit (score/10) 5.8 ± 2.58 6.26 ± 2.78 0.94 (0.84–1.05) 0.27
Condition Specific Symptoms and Signs
 Oswestry Disability Index (score/100) 46.1 ± 15.69 37.43 ± 15.16 1.04 (1.01–1.06) 0.001*
 Patient Specific Functional Scale (score/10) 4.03 ± 1.77 4.29 ± 1.77 0.92 (0.76–1.11) 0.39
 S-LANSS Pain Score (% ≥ 12 points (n)) 49% (35) 51% (37) 1.35 (0.74–2.48) 0.33
 Symptom Duration (% >  12 months (n)) 49% (66) 51% (68) 2.35 (1.1–4.98) 0.03*
 Traumatic Onset (% yes (n)) 49% (31) 51% (33) 1.44 (0.77–2.71) 0.25
 Previous Surgery (% yes (n)) 47% (7) 53% (8) 1.1 (0.38–3.18) 0.86
 Symptom Distribution
 Thorax and/or Cervical Spine Pain (% yes (n)) 46% (41) 54% (48) 1.15 (0.63–2.07) 0.65
 Bilateral Low Back Pain (% yes (n)) 48% (57) 52% (62) 1.65 (0.86–3.18) 0.13
 Leg Pain (% yes (n)) 45% (58) 55% (71) 1.16 (0.59–2.3) 0.67
 Leg Paraesthesia/Anaesthesia (% yes (n)) 49% (40) 51% (41) 1.5 (0.82–2.74) 0.18
Physical Findings
 Lumbar Extension Range (°) 18.92 ± 12.12 20.55 ± 10.91 0.99 (0.96–1.01) 0.36
 Lumbar Flexion Range (°) 63.3 ± 26.33 68.52 ± 23.26 0.99 (0.98–1) 0.17
 Nerve Conduction (% positive pattern (n)) 38% (16) 62% (26) 0.71 (0.34–1.48) 0.37
 Nerve Mechanosensitivity (% yes (n)) 42% (36) 58% (49) 0.92 (0.51–1.68) 0.79
Radiological Findings (all OR’s calculated relative to reference of no abnormality reported on imaging)
 Lumbar Single Level Degenerative Change
 Absent (% yes (n)) 43% (55) 57% (72) Referent  
 Mild (% yes (n)) 62% (8) 38% (5) 2.09 (0.65–6.76) 0.22
 Moderate (% yes (n)) 32% (6) 68% (13) 0.6 (0.22–1.69) 0.34
 Severe (% yes (n)) 46% (5) 54% (6) 1.09 (0.32–3.76) 0.89
 Lumbar Multilevel Degenerative Change
 Absent (% yes (n)) 47% (24) 53% (27) Referent  
 Mild (% yes (n)) 43% (12) 57% (16) 0.84 (0.33–2.14) 0.72
 Moderate (% yes (n)) 40% (26) 60% (39) 0.75 (0.36–1.57) 0.45
 Severe (% yes (n)) 48% (13) 52% (14) 1.04 (0.41–2.66) 0.93
 Central Canal Stenosis
 Absent (% yes (n)) 45% (53) 55% (65) Referent  
 Mild (% yes (n)) 38% (8) 62% (13) 0.75 (0.29–1.96) 0.56
 Moderate (% yes (n)) 48% (9) 52% (10) 1.1 (0.42–2.91) 0.84
 Severe (% yes (n)) 39% (5) 61% (8) 0.77 (0.24–2.48) 0.66
 Foraminal Stenosis
 Absent (% yes (n)) 39% (43) 61% (68) Referent  
 Mild (% yes (n)) 46% (6) 54% (7) 1.36 (0.43–4.30) 0.61
 Moderate (% yes (n)) 53% (17) 47% (15) 1.79 (0.81–3.96) 0.15
 Severe (% yes (n)) 60% (9) 40% (6) 2.37 (0.79–7.14) 0.12
 Lateral Stenosis
 Absent (% yes (n)) 44% (56) 56% (70) Referent  
 Mild (% yes (n)) 40% (6) 60% (9) 0.83 (0.28–2.48) 0.74
 Moderate (% yes (n)) 38% (8) 62% (13) 0.77 (0.3–1.99) 0.59
 Severe (% yes (n)) 56% (5) 44% (4) 1.56 (0.4–6.09) 0.52
Disc Pathology (% yes (n)) 42% (57) 58% (79) 0.68 (0.32–1.44) 0.31
Vertebral Body Pathology (% yes (n)) 59% (13) 41% (9) 2.03 (0.82–5.04) 0.13
Zygopophyseal Joint Pathology (% yes (n)) 42% (39) 58% (54) 0.84 (0.46–1.55) 0.58
Spondylolysis (% yes (n)) 41% (7) 59% (10) 0.88 (0.32–2.42) 0.8
Spondylolisthesis (% yes (n)) 55% (22) 45% (18) 1.8 (0.88–3.67) 0.11
Nerve Comprise (% yes (n)) 39% (37) 61% (59) 0.61 (0.33–1.13) 0.11
Radiology Findings - Poor Prognosis (% yes (n)) 44% (24) 56% (30) 1.04 (0.54–2.01) 0.9
  1. *denotes variables with a univariate relationship (p ≤ 0.1) with a poor response in outcome that were considered for the final analysis. DASS-21 Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, ÖMPSQ – short Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire, S-LANSS Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs
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