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Table 1 Study design

From: Effect of thermal therapy and exercises on acute low back pain: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial

   Study period
Enrolment Baseline 1-week intervention Post-intervention
Time point A0 A1 I A2 A3 A4 A5
Initial screening       
Eligibility assessment       
Informed consent       
Treatment allocation        
Thermal therapy        
Thermal therapy + exercises        
Baseline demographic information        
Physical functioning (ODI)    
Pain (NRS)    
Pain-related fear (TSK-11)    
Self-efficacy (CDSES −6)    
Perception of change (GRoC)    
Number of steps walked per day    (daily)     
  1. A0: first contact with participants; A1: baseline assessment; I: 7-day intervention; A2: assessment 1 week after baseline; A3: assessment 4 weeks after baseline; A4: assessment 12 weeks after baseline; A5: assessment 24 weeks after baseline; ODI: ODI-French Canadian Version; NRS: pain numerical rating scale; TSK: 11-item version of Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia; CDSES − 6: Chronic Disease Self-Efficacy Scale - Short-Version and GRoC: global rating of change