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Table 2 Biomarkers at the bone cartilage interface in OA

From: Bone phenotypes in rheumatology – there is more to bone than just bone

Biomarker Disease levels compared to healthy Findings References
Bone turnover
 CTX-I Increased in endotype subpopulation [83]
 αCTX Associated with increased bone turnover, and progression of disease (JSN, osteophytes) in OA patients [84]
 C1M Increased Increased in total joint replacement subpopulation [85]
 TRACP Associated with subchondral osteoclast number and pain in symptomatic knee OA [86]
Cartilage turnover
 CTX-II Increased Correlated with KL grade, bone marrow lesions, osteophytes. Associated with incidence and radiographic progression of OA [87,88,89,90,91,92,93,94]
 C2M Increased Associated with KL grade [95]
 Coll2–1 Increased Proposed association with progression of OA [96]
 C2C Increased –   
 PIIANP Associated with progression of knee OA. Negatively associated with disease burden in knee and hip OA [97,98,99]
 PIIBNP Decreased [100]
 ARGS Increased [101]
 COMP Associated with incidence and progression of OA [102,103,104]
  1. JSN Joint space narrowing