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Table 1 Biomarkers of bone and cartilage turnover in osteoporosis, osteopetrosis and fibrodysplasia ossificans progressive

From: Bone phenotypes in rheumatology – there is more to bone than just bone

Biomarker Disease levels compared to healthy Findings References
Bone turnover
 CTX-I Osteoporosis: not diagnostic
Osteopetrosis: increased in in vivo models
Osteoporosis: Reduced by anti-resorptive agents (eg. bisphosphonates and anti-RANKL [28, 29]
 PINP Osteoporosis: not diagnostic Osteoporosis: Modulated in response to pharmacological interventions such as bisphosphonates, anti-SOST and anti-RANKL. [28, 29]
 Osteocalcin Osteoporosis: not diagnostic
Osteopetrosis: reduced in ADOII patients
FOP: inconclusive
Osteoporosis: Modulated in response to pharmacological interventions such as bisphosphonates, anti-sclerostin and anti-RANKL.
FOP: Age dependent association with mortality
[28,29,30]
 (B)ALP Osteoporosis: not diagnostic
Osteopetrosis: no difference in ADOII patients
Osteoporosis: Modulated in response to pharmacological interventions such as bisphosphonates, anti-sclerostin and anti-RANKL. [28, 29, 31]
 TRACP5b Osteoporosis: Elevated compared to healthy controls
Osteopetrosis: Increased in ADOII
Increased in in vivo models
Osteoporosis: associated with markers of bone remodeling and BMD.
Osteopetrosis: associated with increased fractures in ADOII patients
[32,33,34,35]
  1. ADOII Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis, SOST Sclerostin, BMD Bone mineral density