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Table 1 Process of cross-cultural adaptation

From: World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0): development and validation of the Nigerian Igbo version in patients with chronic low back pain

Step 1: Two forward translations of the original WHODAS 2.0 to Igbo
A. T1 (Igbo) version: bilingual Physiotherapist (native Igbo speaker, bilingual in Igbo and English)
B. T2 (Igbo) version: bilingual non-clinical translator (native Igbo speaker, bilingual in Igbo and English)
Stage 2: Synthesis of the two forward translations (T1 & T2) by the two forward translators, with CNI-C mediating discussion, to produce T-12 (Igbo) version.
Stage 3: Two back translations of T-12 (Igbo) version to English
i. BT1 (English) version: non-clinical translator (English/Igbo linguistic expert)
ii. BT2 (English) version: non-clinical translator (native English speaker, bilingual In English and Igbo)
iii. CNI-C: reviewed and summarised differences in BT1 and BT2 versions
Stage 4: Expert and translation committee review produced pre-final Igbo WHODAS 2.0. CNI-C mediated discussion of translations and discrepancies in T1, T2, T-12, BT1 and BT2 versions with translators and experts in UK and Nigeria.
Stage 5: CNI-C piloting/pre-testing the pre-final Igbo WHODAS 2.0 with patients to produce the final Igbo-WHODAS 2.0.
CNI-C: The first author